tumor control
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Jan Rustemeyer ◽  
Alexander Busch ◽  

Indolent tumor growth up to large tumor masses and broad infiltration of surrounding tissue are the most typical characteristics of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. If surgery is a therapeutic option, extended resections and complex reconstruction modalities have to be taken into account. We present a combination of different reconstruction techniques to restore midface integrity after bilateral maxillectomy, including parts of the nasal skeleton, for adenoid cystic carcinoma. After obtaining tumor-free margins, reconstruction was performed using a microvascular double-flap technique to achieve a neo-maxilla and soft tissue lining of the oral cavity, dental implantology with prosthetic restoration and the insertion of a patient-specific implant for nasal re-shaping and stability. In cases of extended maxillary resection, a combination of different techniques can achieve sufficient functional and aesthetic rehabilitation, and restore quality of life. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term stability of such complex reconstructions. However, local tumor control remains the highest priority and will be essential for years.

2022 ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Xue Yang ◽  
Yuan Deng ◽  
Yina Jiang ◽  
Guiping Xu ◽  

Abstract Objective: Glucagonoma is an extremely rare neuroendocrine tumor that arises from pancreatic islet alpha cells. Although glucagonoma is usually accompanied by a variety of characteristic clinical symptoms, early diagnosis is still difficult due to the scarcity of the disease. Methods: In this study, we present the cumulative experiences, clinical characteristics and treatments of seven patients diagnosed with glucagonoma during the past 10 years at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University. Results: The seven patients in our cohort consisted of six females and one male with an average diagnosis age of 40.1 years (range 23-51). The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of glucagonoma was 14 months (range 2-36 months). All the patients visited dermatology firstly for necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) 7/7 (100%), other presenting symptoms included: diabetes mellitus (DM) 4/7 (57%), stomatitis 2/7 (28%), weight loss 4/7 (57%), anemia 4/7 (57%), diarrhea 1/7 (14%), DVT1/7 (14%). Plasma glucagon levels were increased in all patients (range 216.92–3155 pg/mL), and declined after surgery. Imaging studies revealed that four of seven patients had liver metastasis. Six of seven patients received surgical resection, and all of them received somatostatin analogue therapy. Symptoms improved significantly in 6 out of 7 patients. Three of seven patients died of this disease by the time of follow-up. Conclusion: Our data suggest that if persistent NME is associated with DM and high glucagon levels, timely abdominal imaging should be performed to confirm glucagonoma. Once diagnosed, surgery and somatostatin analogues are effective for symptom relief and tumor control.

2022 ◽  
Jayanth Surya Narayanan Shankara Narayanan ◽  
Katie Frizzi ◽  
Suna Erdem ◽  
Partha Ray ◽  
David Jaroch ◽  

Abstract Purpose: There is a great need to reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy used in the management of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here we explore if regional pressurized delivery of oxaliplatin can minimize peripheral neuropathy in mice.Methods: We used an orthotopic PDAC mouse model and delivered a single dose of oxaliplatin through the portal vein using a pressure-enabled system (pancreatic retrograde venous infusion, PRVI). We analyzed the effects of PRVI on tumor burden and peripheral neuropathy using histopathological and functional assays.Results: Tumor weights in mice treated with 2 mg/Kg oxaliplatin using PRVI were significantly lower than in mice treated with the same dose systemically. This resulted in reduced peripheral neuropathy signatures in PRVI mice compared to the 20 mg/Kg systemic dose required to achieve similar tumor control.Conclusion: Regional delivery of highly cytotoxic agents using PRVI can reduce the therapeutic dose of these drugs, thereby lowering toxic side effects.

Megan E. Daly

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is the standard treatment for medically inoperable, early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer. SABR results in high rates of in-field tumor control, but among larger and more biologically aggressive tumors, regional and distant failures are problematic. Cytotoxic chemotherapy is rarely used in this patient population and the benefit is unclear. Alternative systemic therapy options with a milder side-effect profile are of considerable interest, and several randomized phase III trials are currently testing immune checkpoint inhibitors in this setting. We review the rationale, data, and ongoing studies evaluating systemic therapy in medically inoperable, early-stage non–small-cell lung cancer treated with SABR.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Gilda Cennamo ◽  
Daniela Montorio ◽  
Luca D’ Andrea ◽  
Antonio Farella ◽  
Elide Matano ◽  

Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy. The aim of this retrospective study was to report the results after ruthenium-106 (Ru-106) plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma in terms of tumor control, visual acuity, radiation-related complications, tumor recurrence, metastases, and patients’ survival rate during 4 years’ follow-up. A total of 355 eyes from 355 patients have been treated with Ru-106 plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma between February 2011 and March 2020. Five patients were lost to follow-up, and then 350 eyes of 350 patients (mean age 58 ± 11 years) were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including echography and spectral domain–optical coherence tomography. The mean follow-up was 4 years (3 months to 9 years). After treatment, the mean tumor thickness was reduced to 1.75 ± 0.21 mm. Radiation complications were found in 63% of patients: 38% showed radiation maculopathy, 11% had optic neuropathy, and 14% developed cataracts. Cancer-free survival was 99%, 97%, and 85%, respectively, at 5, 7, and 9 years. Ru-106 plaque brachytherapy represents a reliable treatment of uveal melanoma. This technique is valid and safe with a low rate of ocular complications during a long-term follow-up.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Zhen Ding ◽  
Xiaoyong Xiang ◽  
Qi Zeng ◽  
Jun Ma ◽  
Zhitao Dai ◽  

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the sensitivity to set up the uncertainty of VMAT plans in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment by proposing a plan robustness evaluation method. Methods 10 patients were selected for this study. A 2-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan was generated for each patient using Varian Eclipse (13.6 Version) treatment planning system (TPS). 5 uncertainty plans (U-plans) were recalculated based on the first 5 times set-up errors acquired from cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT). The dose differences of the original plan and perturbed plan corresponded to the plan robustness for the structure. Tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissues complication probability (NTCP) were calculated for biological evaluation. Results The mean dose differences of D98% and D95% (ΔD98% and ΔD95%) of PTVp were respectively 3.30 Gy and 2.02 Gy. The ΔD98% and ΔD95% of CTVp were 1.12 Gy and 0.58 Gy. The ΔD98% and ΔD95% of CTVn were 1.39 Gy and 1.03 Gy, distinctively lower than those in PTVn (2.8 Gy and 2.0 Gy). The CTV-to-PTV margin increased the robustness of CTVs. The ΔD98% and ΔD95% of GTVp were 0.56 Gy and 0.33 Gy. GTVn exhibited strong robustness with little variation of D98% (0.64 Gy) and D95% (0.39 Gy). No marked mean dose variations of Dmean were seen. The mean reduction of TCP (ΔTCP) in GTVp and CTVp were respectively 0.4% and 0.3%. The mean ΔTCPs of GTVn and CTVn were 0.92% and 1.3% respectively. The CTV exhibited the largest ΔTCP (2.2%). In OARs, the brain stem exhibited weak robustness due to their locations in the vicinity of PTV. Bilateral parotid glands were sensitive to set-up uncertainty with a mean reduction of NTCP (ΔNTCP) of 6.17% (left) and 7.70% (right). The Dmax of optical nerves and lens varied slightly. Conclusion VMAT plans had a strong sensitivity to set-up uncertainty in NPC radiotherapy, with increasing risk of underdose of tumor and overdose of vicinal OARs. We proposed an effective method to evaluate the plan robustness of VMAT plans. Plan robustness and complexity should be taken into account in photon radiotherapy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. e003461
Xiuli Wang ◽  
Ryan Urak ◽  
Miriam Walter ◽  
Min Guan ◽  
Tianxu Han ◽  

BackgroundAdoptive transfer of CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CD19CAR) T cells can induce dramatic disease regression in patients with B cell malignancies. CD19CAR T cell therapy may be limited by insufficient engraftment and persistence, resulting in tumor relapse. We previously demonstrated a proof of principle that cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells can be isolated and enriched prior to CD19CAR transduction to produce CMV-CD19CAR T cells, and that these CMV-CD19CAR T cells can be expanded in vivo through CMV vaccination, resulting in better tumor control in a murine model. Here we developed a clinical platform for generating CMV-CD19CAR T cells.MethodsPeripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from CMV-seropositive healthy donors were stimulated with a good manufacturing practices-grade PepTivator overlapping CMVpp65 peptide pool and enriched for CMV-responsive interferon γ (IFNγ)+T cells using IFNγ Catchmatrix, within the CliniMACS Prodigy Cytokine Capture System (Miltenyi Biotec). Resulting CMV-specific T cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding a second generation CD19R:CD28:ζ/EGFRt CAR and expanded with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-15 for 15 days before characterization.ResultsCMV-specific T cells were enriched from 0.8%±0.5 of input PBMC to 76.3%±11.6 in nine full-scale qualification runs (absolute yield of 4.2±3.3×106 IFNγ+T cells from an input of 1×109 PBMCs). Average CD19CAR transduction efficiency of CMV-specific T cells was 27.0%±14.2 in the final products, which underwent rapid expansion, resulting in a total cell dose of 6.2±0.9 × 106 CD19CAR-tranduced T cells with CMV specificity (ie, functionally bispecific). CMV-CD19CAR T cells were polyclonal, expressed memory markers but had low expression of exhaustion markers, responded to both CD19 and CMVpp65 stimulation with rapid proliferation and exhibited antigen-specific effector functions against both CD19-expressing tumors and CMVpp65 antigen. The final products passed release criteria for clinical use.ConclusionsWe demonstrated the feasibility of our large-scale platform for generating CMV-CD19CAR T cells for clinical application. We plan to initiate a clinical trial at City of Hope using CMV-CD19CAR T cells for patients with intermediate/high-grade B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma immediately after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation followed by vaccination with a novel CMV vaccine based on Modified Vaccinia Ankara (Triplex) 28 days and 56 days post-T cell infusion.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Roberta Coletti ◽  
Andrea Pugliese ◽  
Andrea Lunardi ◽  
Orazio Caffo ◽  
Luca Marchetti

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequent cancer in male population. Androgen deprivation therapy is the first-line strategy for the metastatic stage of the disease, but, inevitably, PCa develops resistance to castration (CRPC), becoming incurable. In recent years, clinical trials are testing the efficacy of anti-CTLA4 on CRPC. However, this tumor seems to be resistant to immunotherapies that are very effective in other types of cancers, and, so far, only the dendritic cell vaccine sipuleucel-T has been approved. In this work, we employ a mathematical model of CRPC to determine the optimal administration protocol of ipilimumab, a particular anti-CTLA4, as single treatment or in combination with the sipuleucel-T, by considering both the effect on tumor population and the drug toxicity. To this end, we first introduce a dose-depending function of toxicity, estimated from experimental data, then we define two different optimization problems. We show the results obtained by imposing different constraints, and how these change by varying drug efficacy. Our results suggest administration of high-doses for a brief period, which is predicted to be more efficient than solutions with prolonged low-doses. The model also highlights a synergy between ipilimumab and sipuleucel-T, which leads to a better tumor control with lower doses of ipilimumab. Finally, tumor eradication is also conceivable, but it depends on patient-specific parameters.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Anasuya Guha ◽  
Martin Chovanec

Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors, comprising only 3% of all head and neck tumors. Early diagnosis forms an integral part of the management of these tumors. The two main aims of any treatment approach are long-term tumor control and minimal cranial nerve morbidity. The scope of this article is to present our case series of HNPGLs to stress most important clinical aspects of their presentation as well as critical issues of their complex management. Thirty patients with suspected HNPGLs were referred to our otorhinolaryngology clinic for surgical consultation between 2016–2020. We assessed the demographical pattern, clinicoradiological correlation, as well as type and outcome of treatment. A total of 42 non-secretory tumors were diagnosed—16.7% were incidental findings and 97% patients had benign tumors. Six patients had multiple tumors. Jugular paragangliomas were the most commonly treated tumors. Tumor control was achieved in nearly 96% of operated patients with minimal cranial nerve morbidity. Surgery is curative in most cases and should be considered as frontline treatment modality in experienced hands for younger patients, hereditary and secretory tumors. Cranial nerve dysfunction associated with tumor encasement is a negative prognostic factor for both surgery and radiotherapy. Multifocal tumors and metastasis are difficult to treat, even with early detection using genetic analysis. Detecting malignancy in HNPGLs is challenging due to the lack of histomorphological criteria; therefore, limited lymph node dissection should be considered, even in the absence of clinical and radiological signs of metastasis in carotid body, vagal, and jugular paragangliomas.

2021 ◽  
Vol 219 (2) ◽  
Mojdeh Shakiba ◽  
Paul Zumbo ◽  
Gabriel Espinosa-Carrasco ◽  
Laura Menocal ◽  
Friederike Dündar ◽  

T cell receptor (TCR) signal strength is a key determinant of T cell responses. We developed a cancer mouse model in which tumor-specific CD8 T cells (TST cells) encounter tumor antigens with varying TCR signal strength. High-signal-strength interactions caused TST cells to up-regulate inhibitory receptors (IRs), lose effector function, and establish a dysfunction-associated molecular program. TST cells undergoing low-signal-strength interactions also up-regulated IRs, including PD1, but retained a cell-intrinsic functional state. Surprisingly, neither high- nor low-signal-strength interactions led to tumor control in vivo, revealing two distinct mechanisms by which PD1hi TST cells permit tumor escape; high signal strength drives dysfunction, while low signal strength results in functional inertness, where the signal strength is too low to mediate effective cancer cell killing by functional TST cells. CRISPR-Cas9–mediated fine-tuning of signal strength to an intermediate range improved anti-tumor activity in vivo. Our study defines the role of TCR signal strength in TST cell function, with important implications for T cell–based cancer immunotherapies.

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