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Shekhar Kumar Keshri ◽  
Satyendra Narayan Sinha

Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a low grade benign tumor, commonly occurs in Cerebellum (42-60%), Optic & hypothalamic region (9-30%), Brain Stem (9%). They rarely spread. It rarely occurs within the ventricle. In this report, we described our experience with cranial pilocytic astrocytoma in a 14-year-old child, who initially treated with near total decompression of tumor. Four and half years later, recurrence of primary tumor with obstructive hydrocephalus occurred for which he underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunt followed by re-excision. As further treatment was being evaluated for radiotherapy in view of recurrence at the primary site, he got detected to have significant spinal drop metastasis seen on MRI Spine. Finally, he underwent craniospinal irradiation (CSI).

2022 ◽  
Kyoko Ishida ◽  
Kazuki SATO ◽  
Hirokazu KOMATSU ◽  
Tatsuya MORITA ◽  
Tatsuo AKECHI ◽  

Abstract Purpose: Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. As research on the experiences of CUP patients and their families is scarce, this study aimed to compare the family-perceived burden of CUP with that of common cancers (lung, colon, and stomach cancer). Additional aims were to explore the association between family-perceived burden and CUP patients’ quality of life (QOL) at end-of-life and family depression.Methods: This was a pre-planned secondary analysis of nationwide cross-sectional survey data from the bereaved family members of patients with cancer who died at 286 institutions. The major measurements were the eight-item family-perceived Burden scale (comprising specialist access, uncertainty, and prolonged diagnosis), Good Death Inventory, and Patient Health Questionnaire 9.Results: Of the total 27,591 survey responses, we analyzed 97 and 717 responses from the family members of patients with CUP and common cancer, respectively. The families of CUP patients scored significantly higher on all three burden subscales than those of common cancer patients (effect sizes: specialist access subscale, 0.3; uncertainty subscale, 0.66; and prolonged diagnosis subscale, 0.69; adjusted P < 0.01). Greater family Burden was significantly associated with lower patient QOL and higher family depression. Burden was significantly associated with being a spouse, second opinion consultation, and diagnosis period of >1 month.Conclusion: The families of CUP patients experience poor specialist access, greater uncertainty, and a prolonged diagnosis. They should be cared for from the initial stages to establish access to specialists, obtain an early diagnosis, and reduce uncertainty.

2022 ◽  
Laurent Fradet ◽  
Emma Charters ◽  
Kan Gao ◽  
Catriona Froggatt ◽  
Carsten Palme ◽  

mBio ◽  
2022 ◽  
Christopher J. Day ◽  
Rachael L. Hardison ◽  
Belinda L. Spillings ◽  
Jessica Poole ◽  
Joseph A. Jurcisek ◽  

In women, the lower female reproductive tract is the primary site for HIV infection. How HIV traverses the epithelium to infect CD4 T cells in the submucosa is ill-defined.

Seema A. Khan ◽  
Fengmin Zhao ◽  
Lori J. Goldstein ◽  
David Cella ◽  
Mark Basik ◽  

PURPOSE Distant metastases are present in 6% or more of patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. In this context, locoregional therapy for the intact primary tumor has been hypothesized to improve overall survival (OS), but clinical trials have reported conflicting results. METHODS Women presenting with metastatic breast cancer and an intact primary tumor received systemic therapy for 4-8 months; if no disease progression occurred, they were randomly assigned to locoregional therapy for the primary site (surgery and radiotherapy per standards for nonmetastatic disease) or continuing sysmetic therapy. The primary end point was OS; locoregional control and quality of life were secondary end points. The trial design provided 85% power to detect a 19.3% absolute difference in the 3-year OS rate in randomly assigned patients. The stratified log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used to compare OS between arms. Cumulative incidence of locoregional progression was compared using Gray's test. Quality-of-life assessment used standard instruments. RESULTS Of 390 participants enrolled, 256 were randomly assigned: 131 to continued systemic therapy and 125 to early locoregional therapy. The 3-year OS was 67.9% without and 68.4% with early locoregional therapy (hazard ratio = 1.11; 90% CI, 0.82 to 1.52; P = .57). The median OS was 53.1 months (95% CI, 47.9 to not estimable) in the systemic therapy arm and 54.9 months (95% CI, 46.7 to not estimable) in the locoregional therapy arm. Locoregional progression was less frequent in those randomly assigned to locoregional therapy (3-year rate: 16.3% v 39.8%; P < .001). Quality-of-life measures were largely similar between arms. CONCLUSION Early locoregional therapy for the primary site did not improve survival in patients presenting with metastatic breast cancer. Although it was associated with improved locoregional control, this had no overall impact on quality of life.

Antibiotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Caterina Zoratti ◽  
Rita Moretti ◽  
Lisa Rebuzzi ◽  
Irma Valeria Albergati ◽  
Antonietta Di Somma ◽  

The liver is the primary site of drug metabolism, which can be altered by a variety of diseases affecting the liver parenchyma, especially in patients with liver cirrhosis. The use of antibiotics in patients with cirrhosis is usually a matter of concern for physicians, given the lack of practical knowledge for drug choice and eventual dose adjustments in several clinical scenarios. The aim of the current narrative review is to report, as broadly as possible, basic, and practical knowledge that any physician should have when approaching a patient with liver cirrhosis and an ongoing infection to efficiently choose the best antibiotic therapy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 875647932110548
Savannah Cerwin, BS RDMS

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a cancer of the immune system, and accounts for 90% of all lymphomas. When lymphoma is discovered outside of the immune system, it is considered extranodal lymphoma. Any organ can be the primary site of NHL, with the gastrointestinal tract being the most common site of involvement. This case study explores the sonographic discovery of an uncommon presentation of NHL with an extranodal mass originating from the pancreatic body and tail, and further extending into the splenic hilum.

Medicina ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 57 (12) ◽  
pp. 1361
Shogo Shinohara ◽  
Masahiro Kikuchi ◽  
Hiroyuki Harada ◽  
Kiyomi Hamaguchi ◽  
Ryo Asato ◽  

Background and Objectives: To investigate clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of patients with buccal cancer in Japan. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a database of 1055 patients with oral cancers treated between 2010 and 2017 at 12 institutions in Japan. Ninety-two patients (8.7%) with primary buccal cancer were extracted and clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were compared between patients with buccal cancers and patients with other oral cancers. Results: Ages were significantly higher in the patients with buccal cancer (73 years old vs. 69 years old). Buccal cancer had less advanced cT stage and cN stage than other oral cancers. Overall 5-year survival (OS) was 80.6%, and recurrence-free 5-year survival (RFS) of buccal cancers was 67.8%, and there were no significant differences in survival compared with other oral cancers in terms OS or RFS (5y-OS: 82.5%, 5y-RFS: 74.4%). However, patients with stage IV buccal cancer showed poorer prognosis in terms of OS and RFS compared with the same stage patients with other oral cancer. Advanced T stage was the only factor independently associated with both OS and RFS of patients with buccal cancer in this study. Conclusions: Postoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy should be considered to improve survival outcome of buccal cancer patients, especially for the patients with advanced primary site disease or a higher cancer stage.

Head & Neck ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vishal R. Dhere ◽  
Chase E. Escott ◽  
Sibo Tian ◽  
Jeffrey M. Switchenko ◽  
James P. Bell ◽  

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