voltage gated sodium channels
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Reham Alfaraj ◽  
Zainab Alabdulsalam ◽  
Zahrah Alfaraj ◽  
Hawraa Alsunni ◽  
Hussain Alhawaj ◽  

Several factors might influence the duration and efficiency of local anesthesia. This study investigates the effect of habitual caffeine intake on lidocaine action and explores the potential involvement of voltage-gated sodium channels in the interaction effect. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (Ctrl), (ii) lidocaine intraplantar injection (LIDO), (iii) habitual caffeine intake (CAF), and (iv) lidocaine intraplantar injection and habitual caffeine intake (LIDO + CAF). Behavioral assessments, consisting of a paw pressure test for mechanical pressure sensation and a paw withdrawal latency test for thermal pain sensation, were performed at 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes following lidocaine injection and after 10, 11, and 12 weeks of CAF intake. Pressure sensation was significantly reduced in the LIDO + CAF group compared with the control group. Moreover, the LIDO + CAF group exhibited reduced sensation compared to LIDO alone group. The LIDO + CAF combination exerted a synergistic effect at 30 and 60 minutes compared with the control. This synergistic effect was noted at 60 minutes (11 weeks of CAF intake) and at 30 minutes (12 weeks of CAF intake) compared with LIDO alone. Augmented thermal pain-relieving effects were observed in the LIDO + CAF group at all weeks compared to the control group and at 10 weeks compared to LIDO alone group. The molecular analysis of dorsal root ganglia suggested that CAF upregulated the mRNA expression of the Nav1.3, Nav1.7, and Nav1.8 sodium channel subtypes. Chronic caffeine consumption potentiates the local anesthetic action of lidocaine in an experimental animal model through mechanisms that involve the upregulation of voltage-gated sodium channels in the dorsal root ganglia.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Pornsawan Khamtorn ◽  
Steve Peigneur ◽  
Fernanda Gobbi Amorim ◽  
Loïc Quinton ◽  
Jan Tytgat ◽  

The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus, is a predator of a variety of agricultural insects and is also hazardous for humans. Its venom is a true pharmacopeia representing neurotoxic peptides targeting the ion channels and/or receptors of both vertebrates and invertebrates. The lack of transcriptomic information, however, limits our knowledge of the diversity of components present in its venom. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) carry out a transcriptomic analysis of the venom, and (2) investigate the bioactivity of the venom using an electrophysiological bioassay. From 32,505 assembled transcripts, 8 toxin families were classified, and the ankyrin repeats (ANK), agatoxin, centipede toxin, ctenitoxin, lycotoxin, scorpion toxin-like, and SCP families were reported in the L. geometricus venom gland. The diversity of L. geometricus venom was also uncovered by the transcriptomics approach with the presence of defensins, chitinases, translationally controlled tumor proteins (TCTPs), leucine-rich proteins, serine proteases, and other important venom components. The venom was also chromatographically purified, and the activity contained in the fractions was investigated using an electrophysiological bioassay with the use of a voltage clamp on ion channels in order to find if the neurotoxic effects of the spider venom could be linked to a particular molecular target. The findings show that U24-ctenitoxin-Pn1a involves the inhibition of the insect sodium (Nav) channels, BgNav and DmNav. This study provides an overview of the molecular diversity of L. geometricus venom, which can be used as a reference for the venom of other spider species. The venom composition profile also increases our knowledge for the development of novel insecticides targeting voltage-gated sodium channels.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
M. Y. Dron ◽  
A. S. Zhigulin ◽  
D. B. Tikhonov ◽  
O. I. Barygin

The interest in AMPA receptors as a target for epilepsy treatment increased substantially after the approval of perampanel, a negative AMPA receptor allosteric antagonist, for the treatment of partial-onset seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Here we performed a screening for activity against native calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) and calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors (CI-AMPARs) among different anticonvulsants using the whole-cell patch-clamp method on isolated Wistar rat brain neurons. Lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, felbamate, carbamazepine, tiagabin, vigabatrin, zonisamide, and gabapentin in 100-µM concentration were practically inactive against both major subtypes of AMPARs, while phenytoin reversibly inhibited them with IC50 of 30 ± 4 μM and 250 ± 60 µM for CI-AMPARs and CP-AMPARs, respectively. The action of phenytoin on CI-AMPARs was attenuated in experiments with high agonist concentrations, in the presence of cyclothiazide and at pH 9.0. Features of phenytoin action matched those of the CI-AMPARs pore blocker pentobarbital, being different from classical competitive inhibitors, negative allosteric inhibitors, and CP-AMPARs selective channel blockers. Close 3D similarity between phenytoin and pentobarbital also suggests a common binding site in the pore and mechanism of inhibition. The main target for phenytoin in the brain, which is believed to underlie its anticonvulsant properties, are voltage-gated sodium channels. Here we have shown for the first time that phenytoin inhibits CI-AMPARs with similar potency. Thus, AMPAR inhibition by phenytoin may contribute to its anticonvulsant properties as well as its side effects.

2021 ◽  
Samantha I. Edenfield ◽  
III Harry J. Gould ◽  
Dennis Paul

Abstract Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are the target for many therapies. Variation in membrane potential occurs throughout the cell cycle, yet little attention has been devoted to VGSCs and Na+,K+-ATPase in the cell cycle. We hypothesized that in addition to doubling DNA and cell membrane in anticipation of cell division, there should be a doubling of VGSCs and Na+,K+-ATPase compared to non-dividing cells. We tested this hypothesis in eight immortalized cell lines by correlating immunocytofluorescent labeling of VGSCs or Na+,K+-ATPase, with propidium iodide or DAPI fluorescence using flow cytometry. Cell surface expression of VGSCs during phases S through M was double that seen during phases G0 - G1. By contrast, Na+,K+-ATPase expression increased only 1.5-fold. The increases were independent of baseline expression of channels or pumps. The variation in VGSC and Na+,K+-ATPase expression has implications for both our understanding of sodium's role in controlling the cell cycle and variability of treatments targeted at these components of the Na+ handling system.

2021 ◽  
Kirsten Bohmbach ◽  
Nicola Masala ◽  
Eva M. Schönhense ◽  
Katharina Hill ◽  
André N. Haubrich ◽  

Dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells amplify clustered glutamatergic input by activation of voltage-gated sodium channels and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). NMDAR activity depends on the presence of NMDAR co-agonists such as D-serine, but how co-agonists influence dendritic integration is not well understood. Using combinations of whole-cell patch clamp, iontophoretic glutamate application, two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy and glutamate uncaging we found that exogenous D-serine reduces the threshold of dendritic spikes and increases their amplitude. Triggering an astrocytic mechanism controlling endogenous D-serine supply via endocannabinoid receptors (CBRs) also increased dendritic spiking. Unexpectedly, this pathway was activated by pyramidal cell activity primarily in the theta range, which required HCN channels and astrocytic CB1Rs. Therefore, astrocytes close a positive and frequency-dependent feedback loop between pyramidal cell activity and their integration of dendritic input. Its disruption led to an impairment of spatial memory, which demonstrates its behavioral relevance.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 5437
Iris S. Brummelhuis ◽  
Stephen J. Fiascone ◽  
Kathleen T. Hasselblatt ◽  
Gyorgy Frendl ◽  
Kevin M. Elias

Abnormal ion channel expression distinguishes several types of carcinoma. Here, we explore the relationship between voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We find that EOC cell lines express most VGSC, but at lower levels than fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (the cells of origin for most EOC) or control fibroblasts. Among patient tumor samples, lower SCN8A expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (median 111 vs. 52 months; HR 2.04 95% CI: 1.21–3.44; p = 0.007), while lower SCN1B expression was associated with poorer OS (median 45 vs. 56 months; HR 0.69 95% CI 0.54–0.87; p = 0.002). VGSC blockade using either anti-epileptic drugs or local anesthetics (LA) decreased the proliferation of cancer cells. LA increased cell line sensitivity to platinum and taxane chemotherapies. While lidocaine had similar additive effects with chemotherapy among EOC cells and fibroblasts, bupivacaine showed a more pronounced impact on EOC than fibroblasts when combined with either carboplatin (ΔAUC −37% vs. −16%, p = 0.003) or paclitaxel (ΔAUC −37% vs. −22%, p = 0.02). Together, these data suggest VGSC are prognostic biomarkers in EOC and may inform new targets for therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Eva Fuchs ◽  
David Alexander Christian Messerer ◽  
Georg Karpel-Massler ◽  
Michael Fauler ◽  
Thomas Zimmer ◽  

Background: Tumor therapeutics are aimed to affect tumor cells selectively while sparing healthy ones. For this purpose, a huge variety of different drugs are in use. Recently, also blockers of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) have been recognized to possess potentially beneficial effects in tumor therapy. As these channels are a frequent target of numerous drugs, we hypothesized that currently used tumor therapeutics might have the potential to block VGSCs in addition to their classical anti-cancer activity. In the present work, we have analyzed the imipridone TIC10, which belongs to a novel class of anti-cancer compounds, for its potency to interact with VGSCs.Methods: Electrophysiological experiments were performed by means of the patch-clamp technique using heterologously expressed human heart muscle sodium channels (hNav1.5), which are among the most common subtypes of VGSCs occurring in tumor cells.Results: TIC10 angular inhibited the hNav1.5 channel in a state- but not use-dependent manner. The affinity for the resting state was weak with an extrapolated Kr of about 600 μM. TIC10 most probably did not interact with fast inactivation. In protocols for slow inactivation, a half-maximal inhibition occurred around 2 µM. This observation was confirmed by kinetic studies indicating that the interaction occurred with a slow time constant. Furthermore, TIC10 also interacted with the open channel with an affinity of approximately 4 µM. The binding site for local anesthetics or a closely related site is suggested as a possible target as the affinity for the well-characterized F1760K mutant was reduced more than 20-fold compared to wild type. Among the analyzed derivatives, ONC212 was similarly effective as TIC10 angular, while TIC10 linear more selectively interacted with the different states.Conclusion: The inhibition of VGSCs at low micromolar concentrations might add to the anti-tumor properties of TIC10.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (10) ◽  
pp. 562
Rawan Mackieh ◽  
Rita Abou-Nader ◽  
Rim Wehbe ◽  
César Mattei ◽  
Christian Legros ◽  

Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are considered to be one of the most important ion channels given their remarkable physiological role. VGSCs constitute a family of large transmembrane proteins that allow transmission, generation, and propagation of action potentials. This occurs by conducting Na+ ions through the membrane, supporting cell excitability and communication signals in various systems. As a result, a wide range of coordination and physiological functions, from locomotion to cognition, can be accomplished. Drugs that target and alter the molecular mechanism of VGSCs’ function have highly contributed to the discovery and perception of the function and the structure of this channel. Among those drugs are various marine toxins produced by harmful microorganisms or venomous animals. These toxins have played a key role in understanding the mode of action of VGSCs and in mapping their various allosteric binding sites. Furthermore, marine toxins appear to be an emerging source of therapeutic tools that can relieve pain or treat VGSC-related human channelopathies. Several studies documented the effect of marine toxins on VGSCs as well as their pharmaceutical applications, but none of them underlined the principal marine toxins and their effect on VGSCs. Therefore, this review aims to highlight the neurotoxins produced by marine animals such as pufferfish, shellfish, sea anemone, and cone snail that are active on VGSCs and discuss their pharmaceutical values.

ChemMedChem ◽  
2021 ◽  
Gualtiero Milani ◽  
Maria Maddalena Cavalluzzi ◽  
Concetta Altamura ◽  
Antonella Santoro ◽  
Mariagrazia Perrone ◽  

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