marine animals
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2022 ◽  
Robine Helena Jannigje Leeuwis ◽  
Anthony Kurt Gamperl

The high intertidal zone is home to an incredible variety of marine animals, as it offers an escape from low intertidal/subtidal predation and competition, among other advantages. However, this area of the shore also comes with many tide-driven and emersion-associated environmental stressors, such as desiccation, high temperatures and freezing stress, hypoxia, salinity fluctuations, nitrogenous waste accumulation, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, wave and ice disturbance, and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) toxicity. This review explores the diversity of evolutionary adaptations and plastic phenotypic responses that high intertidal animals use to cope with these challenges. Examples are provided of behavioural, morphological, physiological and biochemical adaptations/responses, along with some of the underlying molecular mechanisms that have been elucidated to date. Adaptations of many different worms, anemones, molluscs, crustaceans and fishes are highlighted. Many adaptations and mechanisms of plasticity are universal among animal phyla, and some are multifunctional (serve more than one function) or provide tolerance to multiple stressors (i.e., ‘cross-tolerance’). High intertidal animals have received considerable attention by scientists, given their accessibility and that they can provide valuable insights in the transition from a marine to a terrestrial lifestyle. Nevertheless, further research is needed to understand the adaptations/responses of these animals more thoroughly, and the future holds great promise for accomplishing this with recent advances in epigenetics, transcriptomics, protein biochemistry and other molecular tools.

Biomolecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 134
M. Rosário Domingues ◽  
Ricardo Calado

Marine microalgae are a multitude of taxonomically diverse unicellular organisms, ranging from diatoms to dinoflagellates and several other well-known groups, that may dwell in the water column, occur in marine sediments, or even associate symbiotically with marine animals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 339
Paul Berg ◽  
Deise Santana Maia ◽  
Minh-Tan Pham ◽  
Sébastien Lefèvre

Human activities in the sea, such as intensive fishing and exploitation of offshore wind farms, may impact negatively on the marine mega fauna. As an attempt to control such impacts, surveying, and tracking of marine animals are often performed on the sites where those activities take place. Nowadays, thank to high resolution cameras and to the development of machine learning techniques, tracking of wild animals can be performed remotely and the analysis of the acquired images can be automatized using state-of-the-art object detection models. However, most state-of-the-art detection methods require lots of annotated data to provide satisfactory results. Since analyzing thousands of images acquired during a flight survey can be a cumbersome and time consuming task, we focus in this article on the weakly supervised detection of marine animals. We propose a modification of the patch distribution modeling method (PaDiM), which is currently one of the state-of-the-art approaches for anomaly detection and localization for visual industrial inspection. In order to show its effectiveness and suitability for marine animal detection, we conduct a comparative evaluation of the proposed method against the original version, as well as other state-of-the-art approaches on two high-resolution marine animal image datasets. On both tested datasets, the proposed method yielded better F1 and recall scores (75% recall/41% precision, and 57% recall/60% precision, respectively) when trained on images known to contain no object of interest. This shows a great potential of the proposed approach to speed up the marine animal discovery in new flight surveys. Additionally, such a method could be adopted for bounding box proposals to perform faster and cheaper annotation within a fully-supervised detection framework.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 94
Kate E. Buenau ◽  
Lysel Garavelli ◽  
Lenaïg G. Hemery ◽  
Gabriel García Medina

Understanding the environmental effects of marine energy (ME) devices is fundamental for their sustainable development and efficient regulation. However, measuring effects is difficult given the limited number of operational devices currently deployed. Numerical modeling is a powerful tool for estimating environmental effects and quantifying risks. It is most effective when informed by empirical data and coordinated with the development and implementation of monitoring protocols. We reviewed modeling techniques and information needs for six environmental stressor–receptor interactions related to ME: changes in oceanographic systems, underwater noise, electromagnetic fields (EMFs), changes in habitat, collision risk, and displacement of marine animals. This review considers the effects of tidal, wave, and ocean current energy converters. We summarized the availability and maturity of models for each stressor–receptor interaction and provide examples involving ME devices when available and analogous examples otherwise. Models for oceanographic systems and underwater noise were widely available and sometimes applied to ME, but need validation in real-world settings. Many methods are available for modeling habitat change and displacement of marine animals, but few examples related to ME exist. Models of collision risk and species response to EMFs are still in stages of theory development and need more observational data, particularly about species behavior near devices, to be effective. We conclude by synthesizing model status, commonalities between models, and overlapping monitoring needs that can be exploited to develop a coordinated and efficient set of protocols for predicting and monitoring the environmental effects of ME.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zhuojun Guo ◽  
Xin Liao ◽  
J.-Y. Chen ◽  
Chunpeng He ◽  
Zuhong Lu

Reef-building corals play an important role in marine ecosystems. However, owing to climate change, ocean acidification, and predation by invasive crown-of-thorns starfish, these corals are declining. As marine animals comprise polyps, reproduction by asexual budding is pivotal in scleractinian coral growth. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway is essential in coral budding morphogenesis. Here, we sequenced the full-length transcriptomes of four common and frequently dominant reef-building corals and screened out the budding-related FGF and FGFR genes. Thereafter, three-dimensional (3D) models of FGF and FGFR proteins as well as FGF-FGFR binding models were reconstructed. Based on our findings, the FGF8-FGFR3 binding models in Pocillopora damicornis, Montipora capricornis, and Acropora muricata are typical receptor tyrosine kinase-signaling pathways that are similar to the Kringelchen (FGFR) in hydra. However, in P. verrucosa, FGF8 is not the FGFR3 ligand, which is found in other hydrozoan animals, and its FGFR3 must be activated by other tyrosine kinase-type ligands. Overall, this study provides background on the potentially budding propagation signaling pathway activated by the applications of biological agents in reef-building coral culture that could aid in the future restoration of coral reefs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Yi Yang ◽  
Jin Sun ◽  
Chong Chen ◽  
Yadong Zhou ◽  
Cindy Lee Van Dover ◽  

Abstract Background Marine animals often exhibit complex symbiotic relationship with gut microbes to attain better use of the available resources. Many animals endemic to deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems host chemoautotrophic bacteria endocellularly, and they are thought to rely entirely on these symbionts for energy and nutrition. Numerous investigations have been conducted on the interdependence between these animal hosts and their chemoautotrophic symbionts. The provannid snail Alviniconcha marisindica from the Indian Ocean hydrothermal vent fields hosts a Campylobacterial endosymbiont in its gill. Unlike many other chemosymbiotic animals, the gut of A. marisindica is reduced but remains functional; yet the contribution of gut microbiomes and their interactions with the host remain poorly characterised. Results Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses showed that the gut microbiome of A. marisindica plays key nutritional and metabolic roles. The composition and relative abundance of gut microbiota of A. marisindica were different from those of snails that do not depend on endosymbiosis. The relative abundance of microbial taxa was similar amongst three individuals of A. marisindica with significant inter-taxa correlations. These correlations suggest the potential for interactions between taxa that may influence community assembly and stability. Functional profiles of the gut microbiome revealed thousands of additional genes that assist in the use of vent-supplied inorganic compounds (autotrophic energy source), digest host-ingested organics (carbon source), and recycle the metabolic waste of the host. In addition, members of five taxonomic classes have the potential to form slime capsules to protect themselves from the host immune system, thereby contributing to homeostasis. Gut microbial ecology and its interplay with the host thus contribute to the nutritional and metabolic demands of A. marisindica. Conclusions The findings advance the understanding of how deep-sea chemosymbiotic animals use available resources through contributions from gut microbiota. Gut microbiota may be critical in the survival of invertebrate hosts with autotrophic endosymbionts in extreme environments.

2022 ◽  
pp. 302-321
Jorge Ramos

Avid readers find in literature real or imaginary scenarios, which are written in such a way that make them visit the portrayed places. The same goes for films, or documentary series, where the narrator plays a fundamental role in captivating the viewer. Both means are inductors of cultural and/or nature tourism, regardless of everyone's personal motivations. The transmission of values is important and varies over time. In the past some marine animals were perceived negatively by humans, which has faded over time. Ecotourism with activities related to the sea is a relatively recent tourism niche. Nature films or series are often boosters of impulses in tourists for the search for natural, unexplored places or places with little human pressure. Some tourist activities in the nature tourism line developed all over the world—from this induction—such as the cases of diving and observation of marine animals.

Mohamad Asmidzam Ahamat ◽  
Nur Faraihan Zulkefli ◽  
Nurhayati Mohd Nur ◽  
Azmin Syakrine Mohd Rafie ◽  
Eida Nadirah Roslin ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (4 supplement) ◽  
pp. 1325-1330
Pruessayos JITSUMPUN ◽  
Umaporn MUNEENAM ◽  

This article studies the role of Thai guides in protecting marine and coastal environment against impacts from international tourism, in the Andaman Ocean, Thailand. This is a qualitative study with in-depth interviews of 26 licensed guides that were selected by using purposive and snowball sampling. Quantitative data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and qualitative data from in-depth interviews and field notes were analyzed with qualitative data analysis. The results show that behaviors affecting marine and coastal environment mostly involve chasing and catching beautiful fish and/or marine animals (76.9%), feeding fish (73.1%), and collecting beautiful stones, rare shells, and/or coral reefs (73.1%). Guides act in the roles of educator, psychologist, entertainer, ambassador, and servant, and protect against impacts to the extent that they can. While some impacts can be avoided, others remain out of scope and control of the guides.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 27-42
Konrad Tadajczyk

The article describes a preserved poetic fragment commonly called De piscibus, written by Marcellus of Side. He was a physician and a renowned epic poet, who lived in the town of Side (Pamphylia) in the second century AD. In the analyzed fragment (v. 41–101), being an extract from his didactic epos entitled Cheironides, Marcellus of Side presents a number of remedies prepared from some marine animals, especially fishes, living in the Mediterranean Sea.

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