primary and secondary prevention
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Shilpa Atwal ◽  
Jitender Thakur

Background: To describe the outcome of statin therapy in patients by checking lipid profile after 3 months of starting treatment in statin naive patients Methods: Study was conducted on Patients with indications for statins presenting to cardiology OPD, Medicine OPD and Endocrinology OPD and started on statins at PGIMER, Chandigarh, within a period of 9 months. Results: The mean decrease in total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL and LDL levels in primary prevention group mean decrease in after 3 months of statin treatment in comparison to baseline were 17.24%,21.24%, 22.83 % and 33.19% respectively and increase in mean HDL level was 9.55%. The mean decrease in total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL and LDL levels in secondary prevention group after 3 months of statin treatment in comparison to baseline were 14.35% 15.80%, 16.17% and 36.92% respectively and increase in mean HDL level was 8.77%. Concluded: So there was statistically significant change in lipid profile from baseline in both primary and secondary prevention groups after 3 months of statin treatment. Keywords: Statin, LDL,VLDL, HDL

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 173-181
Yosi Febrianti ◽  
Saepudin Saepudin ◽  
Dian Medisa ◽  
Haryo Tetuko ◽  
Nurul Fadhillah Hasanah

Background: Lipid modifying agents have an important role in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke. The use of lipid-modifying agents tends to increase along with the increasing prevalence of these diseases. Objectives: To determine the utilization of lipid modifying agents for hospitalized patients in a private hospital in Yogyakarta during the period of 2013 - 2019 in regard to the agents used and their quantity. Methods: The main data for this study were aggregate data on the use of lipid modifying agents for hospitalized patients during 2013-2019 obtained from the hospital pharmacy department. After identification of the names of lipid modifying agents, the quantities of these drugs were then calculated in units of defined daily dose (DDD) and the final quantity was expressed in DDD/100 bed days (BD). The R2 value from linear regression was used to determine the trend of use of individual agents over the period. Results: There were two pharmacological subgroups of lipid modifying agents used during the period of 2013 – 2019 with an average of total quantity of 14.81 DDD/100 BD. Utilization of statins was approximately 90% of the total use, and utilization of fibrates tended to decrease over the period. Individually, simvastatin use decreased significantly over the period (R2 = 0.885), but atorvastatin use continued to increase (R2 = 0.908) with 10-fold increase from 2013 to 2019. Conclusion: The lipid modifying agents used during the period 2013 - 2019 were predominantly statins, and the utilization of atorvastatin increased significantly during this period. Keywords: lipid modifying agents, ATC/DDD, fibrates, statins

Lindsay Short ◽  
Van T. La ◽  
Mandira Patel ◽  
Ramdas G. Pai

AbstractCoronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in both men and women, yet adequate control of risk factors can largely reduce the incidence and recurrence of cardiac events. In this review, we discuss various life style and pharmacological measures for both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. With a clear understanding of management options, health care providers have an excellent opportunity to educate patients and ameliorate a significant burden of morbidity and mortality.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yixi Zhao ◽  
Shengjie Yang ◽  
Min Wu

Atherosclerotic thrombotic disease continues to maintain a high morbidity and mortality rate worldwide at present. Aspirin, which is reckoned as the cornerstone of primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs), has been applied in clinics extensively. However, cardiovascular events continue to occur even though people utilize aspirin appropriately. Therefore, the concept of aspirin resistance (AR) was put forward by scholars, which is of great significance for the prediction of the clinical outcome of diseases. The pathogenesis of AR may be incorporated with low patient compliance, insufficient dose, genetic polymorphism, increased platelet transformation, inflammation, and the degenerative changes and calcification of platelets. The improvement of AR in the treatment of ASCVDs has gradually become a research hot spot in recent years. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) regards individuals as a whole and treats them from a holistic view, which has been found to have advantages in clinical studies on the treatment of AR. Many kinds of blood-activating TCM have the effect of improving AR. The potential mechanism for the improvement of AR by blood-activating herbs combined with aspirin was explored. The combination of blood-activating herbs and aspirin to improve AR is likely to turn into a hot topic of research in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 95-99
M. Zamboriova ◽  
L. Dimunova ◽  
J. Buckova ◽  
I. Nagyova

Objective: The aim of this research is to identify behavioral risk factors in patients with cardiovascular diseases with a focus on obesity. Design: Descriptive study. Participants: The sample group consisted of 878 patients with ischemic heart disease. Methods: Clinical, laboratory parameters and a questionnaire focused on identifying behavioral risk factors of one ́s lifestyle. Data processing through descriptive and inductive statistics. Results:The mean BMI is 29.39 (± SD 4.69). The results show that 355 (40.2%) patients have obesity and we identified overweight as a precursor to obesity in 377 (42.93%) patients. We found deficiencies in behavioral risk factors (smoking, al- cohol consumption, nutrition, physical activity) in all patients. A significant relationship was confirmed between smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity. Conclusion: The results of our research suggest that there is a need to improve primary and secondary prevention inpa- tients, healthcare professionals and government policy.

2021 ◽  
pp. dtb-2021-000065

AbstractOverview of: The Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Triallists’ Collaboration. Pharmacological blood pressure lowering for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease across different levels of blood pressure: an individual participant-level data meta-analysis. Lancet 2021;397:1625–36.

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