Objective: To evaluate the awareness & practices regarding weaning in lactating mothers of infants. Design: A crosssectional descriptive study. Setting: At pediatrics OPD in Ghurki Trust Teaching hospital, Lahore. Period: From Octoberto December 2007.Methodology: A non probability convenience sampling was done to collect data from 50 mothers who were attending out patient departmentalong with their infants on a pre-formed questionnaire. After gathering, data was analyzed & presented in the form of tables & graphs.Results: In the present study, 66% mothers were in the age group of 20-29 years, all were house wives, 34 % were matriculate and 72%lived in joint family system, Mean age of weaning was 4-6 months in more than 64 % of the sample. Among the women interviewed, 44%used home-made weaning diets, 30% used mixture of homemade and commercially prepared diets, while 16% used only commerciallyprepared diets. Breast feeding was continued during and after weaning, by 64% of respondents along with weaning diets. Conclusion:Mothers need to be educated about the importance of weaning, the recommended age of weaning and about the types of weaning food.This can be achieved by using lady health workers and lady health visitors and the mass media. Importance of continued breast feedingwith weaning diet should be emphasized upon.
This study describes the design and implementation of remote Summer undergraduate research programs during the COVID-19 pandemic, including program strengths and recommendations for improvement from the perspectives of undergraduate researchers.
The purpose of this study is to explore entrepreneurship education courses offered by public universities of the Jamshoro higher education institutions (HEIs). It examines the scope and the existing status of entrepreneurship in the Jamshoro public universities. Data were based on secondary data taken from official websites, prospectus, departmental reports and universities’ policy documents of the public universities of the Jamshoro Higher, included three public universities by examining their curricula and exploring the status of entrepreneurship of the selected sample from these universities. The results of this study indicated the public universities of the Jamshoro higher education city, just one core course on entrepreneurship was offered to some departments. Furthermore entrepreneurship programs were extremely rare. As a result, this research may encourage policymakers and universities to develop an effective and appropriate syllabus to fill the gap in existing curriculum of not only entrepreneurship but other courses as well.
AbstractWhen the COVID-19 pandemic was declared in March 2020, the lives of families all over the world were disrupted. Many adults found themselves working from home while their children were unable to go to school. To better understand the potential impact of these educational disruptions, it is important to establish what learning looked like during the first school shutdown in the spring of 2020, particularly for the youngest learners who may feel the longest lasting impacts from this pandemic. Therefore, the purpose of the current descriptive study was to gather information on how kindergarten teaching and learning occurred during this time, what the biggest barriers were, and what concerns educators had regarding returning in person to the classroom setting. The sample for the current study was 2569 kindergarten educators (97.6% female; 74.2% teachers, 25.8% early childhood educators) in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed a questionnaire consisting of both quantitative scales and qualitative open-ended questions. Educators reported that parents most often contacted them regarding technological issues or how to effectively support their child. The largest barrier to learning was the ability of both parents and educators to balance work, home life, and online learning/teaching. With regards to returning to school, educators were most concerned about the lack of ability of kindergarten aged children to do tasks independently and to follow safety protocols. Our findings highlight unique challenges associated with teaching kindergarten during the pandemic, contributing to our understanding of the learning that occurred in Ontario during the first COVID-19 shutdown.
Background: Administration of 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) for neuroblastoma requires hospitalization in single-room isolation and limits caregiver physical contact due to the child's radioactive burden. Though used for decades, there is a dearth of research on the experiences of children and their parents while isolated. Methods: This qualitative descriptive study evaluated the experience of children with neuroblastoma undergoing single-room isolation for 131I-MIBG therapy and their parents. Ten nurses, nine parents, and five children were interviewed; transcripts were analyzed applying a conventional content analysis approach. Results: Child themes included overall experiences ranging from positive to negative; emotional stress was common; symptoms were common but mostly managed; the children were adequately prepared for isolation; and audiovisual technology and entertainment helped. The indwelling urinary catheter was a source of emotional stress and/or pain for several children. Parent themes included I thought it was going to be a lot worse; it gets better with time; feeling concerned and overwhelmed; prepared as much as you can be; and you feel like you’re not alone. Discussion: Findings suggest that children and parents would benefit from additional coping support interventions to address emotional distress. Efforts should be made to identify other sources of technology or room designs that can maximize the child's sense of connection with parents and healthcare professionals. Additional research is needed to examine the impact of this isolation experience on the long-term psychological outcomes of children and parents.
This descriptive study aimed at identifying the concerns of the Sudanese media for promotion of tourism in the country. To attain that, the study seeks to answer a set of questions such as: How far is the awareness and the concern given to the touristic activity as economic and social value? How efficient are the media and communications efforts to promote what existed? How the media performance corresponds with the importance of tourism in Sudan? The study adopted the survey method. Its population represents the three groups in tourism sector in Khartoum State. The sample includes: class sample and selected sample from the institutions. Data is collected by a questionnaire. The study demonstrates that the efficiency of media in promotion of tourism is impeded and weakened by the technical and professional shortcomings of the employees in the field. The study recommends the following: Capitalizing the concept of touristic promotion among the employees of the Sudanese media and raising their skills and capabilities. Activation of federal and state touristic awareness.
During a time of high stress and decreased social interaction, nurses have turned to social media platforms like TikTok as an outlet for expression, entertainment, and communication.
The purpose of this cross-sectional content analysis study is to describe the content of videos with the hashtag #covidnurse on TikTok, which included 100 videos in the English language.
At the time of the study, this hashtag had 116.9 million views. Each video was coded for content-related to what nurses encountered and were feeling during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Combined, the 100 videos sampled received 47,056,700 views; 76,856 comments; and 5,996,676 likes. There were 4 content categories that appeared in a majority (>50) of the videos: 83 showed the individual as a nurse, 72 showed the individual in professional attire, 58 mentioned/suggested stress, 55 used music, and 53 mentioned/suggested frustration. Those that mentioned stress and those that mentioned frustration received less than 50% of the total views (n=21,726,800, 46.17% and n=16,326,300, 34.69%, respectively). Although not a majority, 49 of the 100 videos mentioned the importance of nursing. These videos garnered 37.41% (n=17,606,000) of the total views, 34.82% (n=26,759) of the total comments, and 23.85% (n=1,430,213) of the total likes. So, despite nearly half of the total videos mentioning how important nurses are, these videos received less than half of the total views, comments, and likes.
Social media and increasingly video-related online messaging such as TikTok are important platforms for social networking, social support, entertainment, and education on diverse topics, including health in general and COVID-19 specifically. This presents an opportunity for future research to assess the utility of the TikTok platform for meaningful engagement and health communication on important public health issues.
The four problems that become the main study in this study. First, how to plan early child’s character development through habituation and exemplary in the Kindergarten of Al-Quran Matsaratul Huda Panempan Pamekasan. Second, how to organize the development of early child’s character through habituation and exemplary in the kindergarten of Al-Quran Matsaratul Huda Panempan Pamekasan. Third, how the implementation of early child’s character development through habituation and exemplary in the kindergarten of Al-Quran Matsaratul Huda Panempan Pamekasan. Fourth, how to evaluate the character development of the early child through habituation and examplary in the kindergarten of Al-Quran Matsaratul Huda Panempan Pamekasan. It is a qualitative descriptive study where the data collected through field observation, interviews, and documentation. The results showed that developing an early child’s character should be well managed. Instilling good habituation for the children and becoming an excellent example of the teachers proved successful in early child’s character development.
This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted to observe the quality of Pharmacology professional MCQ papers of different Universities of Bangladesh. For this purpose, total 80 MCQ papers of five universities dated from January 2007 to July 2015 were reviewed against a checklist to find out the coverage of recall, understanding and problem solving type questions, content coverage and construction of each question. The mean of recall, understanding and problem based type questions of all the universities were 92.1, 7.8 and 0.1 respectively and all of them statistically significantly differed from curriculum standard. All of the MCQ papers contained more than 75% recall type questions and 27.5% MCQ papers had only recall questions, Only 1(1.2%) MCQ papers contained 100 % topics (all the 11 groups). Eighteen (22.5%) contained 10 groups and 26.3% contained 9 groups out of 11. Forty percent MCQ papers contained less than 80% topics. Most of the stems of the MCQ were in the form of incomplete sentence (53.5%), 28.4% were in the form of complete statement and 16.8% were in the form of single word. Only 0.4% stem were in the form of clinical scenario. Fifty (62.5%) MCQ papers had defective stems and 68.75% had defective options. Total 14 (17.5%) MCQ papers were without any flaw but the rest 88.5% MCQ papers were with flaws either defective stem or faulty options or both. Findings of this study may be used to redefine the distribution of different type of questions in SAQ papers and to improve the quality of question papers by ensuring their coverage.
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Education Vol.13(1) January 2022: 49-57