hot spot
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2022 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 209-218
Damla Ovek ◽  
Zeynep Abali ◽  
Melisa Ece Zeylan ◽  
Ozlem Keskin ◽  
Attila Gursoy ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 003754972110699
José V C Vargas ◽  
Sam Yang ◽  
Juan Carlos Ordonez ◽  
Luiz F Rigatti ◽  
Pedro H R Peixoto ◽  

A simplified three-dimensional mathematical model for electronic packaging cabinets was derived from physical laws. Tridimensionality resulted from the domain division in volume elements (VEs) with uniform properties, each with one temperature, and empirical and theoretical correlations allowed for modeling their energetic interaction, thus producing ordinary differential equations (ODEs) temperatures versus time system. The cabinet (2048 mm × 1974 mm × 850 mm) thermal response with one heat source was measured. Data set 1 with a 1.6-kW power source was used for model adjustment by solving an inverse problem of parameter estimation (IPPE) having the cabinet internal average air velocities as adjustment parameters. Data set 2 obtained with a 3-kW power source validated model results. The converged mesh had a total of 7500 VE. The steady-state solution took between 16 and 19 s of CPU time to reach convergence and less than 3 min to obtain the 6500-s cabinet dynamic response under variable loading conditions, in an Intel CORE i7 computer. After validation, the model was used to study the impact of heat source height on system thermal response. Fundamentally, a sharp minimum junction temperature Tjct,min = 98.5 °C was obtained in the system hot spot at an optimal heat source height, which was 25.7 °C less than the highest calculated value within the investigated range (0.1 m < zjct < 1.66 m) for the 1.6-kW power setting, which characterizes the novelty of the research, and is worth to be pursued, no matter how complex the actual cabinet design may be.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Lamessa Gudata ◽  
Jule Leta Tesfaye ◽  
Abela Saka ◽  
R. Shanmugam ◽  
L. Priyanka Dwarampudi ◽  

The exploration of Coulomb blockade oscillations in plasmonic nanoparticle dimers is the subject of this study. When two metal nanoparticles are brought together at the end of their journey, tunnelling current prevents an infinite connection dipolar plasmon and an infinite amplification in the electric fields throughout the hot spot in between nanoparticles from occurring. One way to think about single-electron tunnelling through some kind of quantum dot is to think about Coulomb blockage oscillations in conductance. The electron transport between the dot and source is considered. The model of study is the linear conductance skilled at describing the basic physics of electronic states in the quantum dot. The linear conductance through the dot is defined as G = lim ⟶ 0 I / V in the limit of infinity of small bias voltage. We discuss the classical and quantum metallic Coulomb blockade oscillations. Numerically, the linear conductance was plotted as a function gate voltage. The Coulomb blockade oscillation occurs as gate voltage varies. In the valleys, the conductance falls exponentially as a function gate voltage. As a result of our study, the conductance is constant at high temperature and does not show oscillation in both positive and negative gate voltages. At low temperature, conductance shows oscillation in both positive and negative gate voltages.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 63
Lina Galinskaitė ◽  
Alius Ulevičius ◽  
Vaidotas Valskys ◽  
Arūnas Samas ◽  
Peter E. Busher ◽  

Vehicle collisions with animals pose serious issues in countries with well-developed highway networks. Both expanding wildlife populations and the development of urbanised areas reduce the potential contact distance between wildlife species and vehicles. Many recent studies have been conducted to better understand the factors that influence wildlife–vehicle collisions (WVCs) and provide mitigation methods. Most of these studies examined road density, traffic volume, seasonal fluctuations, etc. However, in analysing the distribution of WVC, few studies have considered a spatial and significant distance geostatistical analysis approach that includes how different land-use categories are associated with the distance to WVCs. Our study investigated the spatial distribution of agricultural land, meadows and pastures, forests, built-up areas, rivers, lakes, and ponds, to highlight the most dangerous sections of roadways where WVCs occur. We examined six potential ‘hot spot’ distances (5–10–25–50–100–200 m) to evaluate the role different landscape elements play in the occurrence of WVC. The near analysis tool showed that a distance of 10–25 m to different landscape elements provided the most sensitive results. Hot spots associated with agricultural land, forests, as well as meadows and pastures, peaked on roadways in close proximity (10 m), while hot spots associated with built-up areas, rivers, lakes, and ponds peaked on roadways farther (200 m) from these land-use types. We found that the order of habitat importance in WVC hot spots was agricultural land < forests < meadows and pastures < built-up areas < rivers < lakes and ponds. This methodological approach includes general hot-spot analysis as well as differentiated distance analysis which helps to better reveal the influence of landscape structure on WVCs.

2022 ◽  
Zhangzhe Yan ◽  
Mingang He ◽  
Haoxin Shi ◽  
Haipeng Wang ◽  
Miao Qin ◽  

Abstract Background and purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with the highest mortality globally. At present, there is no exact biomarker to predict the prognosis and clinicopathological monitoring of CRC patients. Recent studies on the relationship of Karyopherin α 2 (KPNA2) expression and the prognosis of CRC has gradually become a hot spot while the results are still controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze and assess the prognostic role of KPNA2 in CRC patients. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and Chinese Medical Database were systematically searched. The cohort study of high-level expression of KNPA2 and low-level expression of KPNA2 in CRC patients was included, the relevant data were extracted and the literature quality was evaluated. At the same time, the relationship between KPNA2 expression level and the overall survival (OS), the clinicopathological stage of CRC patients was studied. Meta-analysis was carried out by Stata MP 17.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA) software. Results: A total of 7 cohort studies involving 1166 patients were included. The analysis results showed that higher KPNA2 expression was significantly associated with higher tumor stage (OR=1.90, 95% CI 1.42–2.54), higher degree of tumor invasion (OR=2.14,95% CI 1.55-2.94), more lymph node metastasis (OR=2.20, 95% CI 1.68-2.88) and more distant metastasis (OR=3.66,95% CI 1.81-7.40). Moreover, higher KPNA2 expression was significantly associated with the shorter OS (HR=2.31, 95%CI 1.46-3.68).Conclusion: KPNA2 overexpression is an unfavorable prognostic factor for CRC patients. It could serve as a prognostic biomarker and as a potential therapeutic target for CRC.

Keiya Fujimoto ◽  
Hiroaki Hanafusa ◽  
Takuma Sato ◽  
Seiichiro HIGASHI

Abstract We have developed optical-interference contactless thermometry (OICT) imaging technique to visualize three-dimensional transient temperature distribution in 4H-SiC Schottky barrier diode (SBD) under operation. When a 1 ms forward pulse bias was applied, clear variation of optical interference fringes induced by self-heating and cooling were observed. Thermal diffusion and optical analysis revealed three-dimensional temperature distribution with high spatial (≤ 10 μm) and temporal (≤ 100 μs) resolutions. A hot spot that signals breakdown of the SBD was successfully captured as an anormal interference, which indicated a local heating to a temperature as high as 805 K at the time of failure.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 323
Pauline Verdurme ◽  
Simon Carn ◽  
Andrew J. L. Harris ◽  
Diego Coppola ◽  
Andrea Di Muro ◽  

Five effusive eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) are analyzed to investigate temporal trends of erupted mass and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Daily SO2 emissions are acquired from three ultraviolet (UV) satellite instruments (the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)) and an array of ground-based UV spectrometers (Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC)). Time-averaged lava discharge rates (TADRs) are obtained from two automatic satellite-based hot spot detection systems: MIROVA and MODVOLC. Assuming that the lava volumes measured in the field are accurate, the MIROVA system gave the best estimation of erupted volume among the methods investigated. We use a reverse petrological method to constrain pre-eruptive magmatic sulfur contents based on observed SO2 emissions and lava volumes. We also show that a direct petrological approach using SO2 data might be a viable alternative for TADR estimation during cloudy weather that compromises hot spot detection. In several eruptions we observed a terminal increase in TADR and SO2 emissions after initial emission of evolved degassed magma. We ascribe this to input of deeper, volatile-rich magma into the plumbing system towards the end of these eruptions. Furthermore, we find no evidence of volatile excess in the five eruptions studied, which were thus mostly fed by shallow degassed magma.

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