earth observation data
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2022 ◽  
Vol 219 ◽  
pp. 104316
Author(s):  
Yunyu Tian ◽  
Nandin-Erdene Tsendbazar ◽  
Eveline van Leeuwen ◽  
Rasmus Fensholt ◽  
Martin Herold

2022 ◽  
Vol 78 ◽  
pp. 20-39
Author(s):  
P.V. Arun ◽  
R. Sadeh ◽  
A. Avneri ◽  
Y. Tubul ◽  
C. Camino ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Author(s):  
Emmanouil Psomiadis

The present study provides information about the evolution of the Sperchios River deltaic area over the last 6500 years. Coastal changes, due to natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities, were analyzed utilizing a variety of geospatial data such as historic records, topographic maps, aerial photos, and satellite images, covering a period from 4500 BC to 2020. A qualitative approach for the period, from 4500 BC to 1852, and a quantitative analysis, from 1852 to the present day, were employed. Considering their scale and overall quality, the data were processed and georeferenced in detail based on the very high-resolution orthophoto datasets of the area. Then, the multitemporal shorelines were delineated in a geographical information system platform. Two different methods were utilized for the estimation of the shoreline changes and trends, namely the coastal change area method and the cross-section analysis, by implementing the digital shoreline analysis system with two statistical approaches, the end point rate and the linear regression rate. Significant river flow and coastline changes were observed with the overall increase in the delta area throughout the study period reaching 135 km2 (mean annual growth of 0.02 km2/yr) and the higher accretion rates to be detected during the periods 1805–1852, 1908–1945 and 1960–1986, especially at the central and north part of the gulf. During the last three decades, the coastline has remained relatively stable with a decreasing tendency, which, along with the expected sea-level rise due to climate change, can infer significant threats for the coastal zone in the near future.


2022 ◽  
pp. 100695
Author(s):  
Rose Pritchard ◽  
Thomas Alexandridis ◽  
Mary Amponsah ◽  
Nabil Ben Khatra ◽  
Dan Brockington ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Author(s):  
Raghda El-Behaedi

Throughout the world, cultural heritage sites are under the direct threat of damage or destruction due to developing environmental and anthropogenic hazards, such as urban expansion, looting, and rising water levels. Exacerbating this problem is the fact that many of the most vulnerable sites’ exact locations and/or full spatial extents have yet to be uncovered, making any attempts at their protection exceedingly difficult. However, the utilization of earth observation data has recently emerged as an unmatched tool in the exploration and (digital) preservation of endangered archaeological sites. The presented research employs very high-resolution WorldView-3 satellite imagery (~30 cm) for identifying and delineating previously unknown subsurface archaeological structures at the ancient Egyptian site of Hermopolis (el-Ashmunein). A particular emphasis is placed on the application of spectral indices, specifically those looking at vegetation cropmarks and iron oxide levels. Through this analysis, seven promising structures were identified, including three elongated installations, which may have been utilized for storage purposes, and a potential casemate foundation structure. As 2D outlines of structures are often difficult to visualize, the newly identified archaeological features were expanded into a realistic, georeferenced 3D model using the computer programs, SketchUp Pro and Chaos V-Ray. The goal of this 3D model is to ensure that the results derived from this research are more accessible (and tangible) to a wider audience—the scientific community and the public alike. The methodological scheme presented in this article is highly adaptable and with some minor modifications can be replicated for other archaeological sites worldwide.


Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1802
Author(s):  
Argo Orumaa ◽  
Priit Vellak ◽  
Mait Lang ◽  
Marek Metslaid ◽  
Riho Kägo ◽  
...  

In this article, we introduce an alternative solution for forest regeneration based on unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) and describe requirements for external data, which could significantly increase the level of automation. Over the past few decades, the global forested area has decreased, and there is a great need to restore and regenerate forests. Challenges such as the lack of labor and high costs demand innovative approaches for forest regeneration. Mechanization has shown satisfactory results in terms of time-efficient planting, although its usage is limited by high operational costs. Innovative technologies must be cost-efficient and profitable for large scale usage. Automation could make mechanized forest regeneration feasible. Forest regeneration operations can be automated using a purpose built unmanned platform. We developed a concept to automate forest planting operations based on mobility platform. The system requires external data for efficient mobility in clear-cut areas. We developed requirements for external data, analyzed available solutions, and experimented with the most promising option, the SfM (structure from motion) technique. Earth observation data are useful in the planning phase. A DEM (digital terrain model) for UGV planter operations can be constructed using ALS (airborne laser scanning), although it may be restricted by the cost. Low-altitude flights by drones equipped with digital cameras or lightweight laser scanners provided a usable model of the terrain. This model was precise (3–20 cm) enough for manually planning of the trajectory for the planting operation. This technique fulfilled the system requirements, although it requires further development and will have to be automated for operational use.


Abstract Each year throughout the contiguous United States (CONUS), flood hazards cause damage amounting to billions of dollars in homeowner insurance claims. As climate change threatens to raise the frequency and severity of flooding in vulnerable areas, the ability to predict the number of property insurance claims resulting from flood events becomes increasingly important to flood resilience. Based on random forest, we develop a flood property Insurance Claims model (iClaim) by fusing records from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), including building locations, topography, basin morphometry, and land cover, with data from multiple sources of hydrometeorological variables, including flood extent, precipitation, and operational river-stage and oceanic water-level measurements. The model utilizes two steps—damage level classification and claim number regression—and subsampling strategies designed accordingly to reduce overfitting and underfitting caused by the flood claim samples, which are unevenly distributed and widely ranged. We evaluate the model using 446,446 grid samples identified from 589 flood events occurring from 2016 to 2019 over CONUS, overlapping 258,159 claims out of a total of 287,439 NFIP records of the same period. Our rigorous validation yields acceptable performance at the grid/event, county/event, and event accumulative level, with R2 over 0.5, 0.9, and 0.95, respectively. We conclude that the iClaim model can be used in many application scenarios, including assessing flood impact and improving flood resilience.


2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 117-144
Author(s):  
Michał Bednarczyk

This paper describes JupyQgis – a new Python library for Jupyteo IDE enabling interoperability with the QGIS system. Jupyteo is an online integrated development environment for earth observation data processing and is available on a cloud platform. It is targeted at remote sensing experts, scientists and users who can develop the Jupyter notebook by reusing embedded open-source tools, WPS interfaces and existing notebooks. In recent years, there has been an increasing popularity of data science methods that have become the focus of many organizations. Many scientific disciplines are facing a significant transformation due to data-driven solutions. This is especially true of geodesy, environmental sciences, and Earth sciences, where large data sets, such as Earth observation satellite data (EO data) and GIS data are used. The previous experience in using Jupyteo, both among the users of this platform and its creators, indicates the need to supplement its functionality with GIS analytical tools. This study analyzed the most efficient way to combine the functionality of the QGIS system with the functionality of the Jupyteo platform in one tool. It was found that the most suitable solution is to create a custom library providing an API for collaboration between both environments. The resulting library makes the work much easier and simplifies the source code of the created Python scripts. The functionality of the developed solution was illustrated with a test use case.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sophia Walther ◽  
Simon Besnard ◽  
Jacob A. Nelson ◽  
Tarek S. El-Madany ◽  
Mirco Migliavacca ◽  
...  

Abstract. The eddy-covariance technique measures carbon, water, and energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere at several hundreds of sites globally. Collections of standardised and homogenised flux estimates such as the LaThuile, Fluxnet2015, National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS), AsiaFlux, and Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) / OzFlux data sets are invaluable to study land surface processes and vegetation functioning at the ecosystem scale. Space-borne measurements give complementary information on the state of the land surface in the surroundings of the towers. They aid the interpretation of the fluxes and support the training and validation of ecosystem models. However, insufficient quality, frequent and/or long gaps are recurrent problems in applying the remotely sensed data and may considerably affect the scientific conclusions drawn from them. Here, we describe a standardised procedure to extract, quality filter, and gap-fill Earth observation data from the MODIS instruments and the Landsat satellites. The methods consistently process surface reflectance in individual spectral bands, derived vegetation indices and land surface temperature. A geometrical correction estimates the magnitude of land surface temperature as if seen from nadir or 40° off-nadir. We offer to the community pre-processed Earth observation data in a radius of 2 km around 338 flux sites based on the MCD43A4/A2, MxD11A1 MODIS products and Landsat collection~1 Tier1 and Tier2 products. The data sets we provide can widely facilitate the integration of activities in the fields of eddy-covariance, remote sensing and modelling.


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