late pregnancy
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Stefanie Dietz ◽  
Julian Schwarz ◽  
Ana Velic ◽  
Irene González-Menéndez ◽  
Leticia Quintanilla-Martinez ◽  

During pregnancy, maternal immune system has to balance tightly between protection against pathogens and tolerance towards a semi-allogeneic organism. Dysfunction of this immune adaptation can lead to severe complications such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction. In the present study we analyzed the impact of the murine MHC class Ib molecule Qa-2 on pregnancy outcome in vivo. We demonstrate that lack of Qa-2 led to intrauterine growth restriction and increased abortion rates especially in late pregnancy accompanied by a disturbed trophoblast invasion and altered spiral artery remodeling as well as protein aggregation in trophoblast cells indicating a preeclampsia-like phenotype. Furthermore, lack of Qa-2 caused imbalanced immunological adaptation to pregnancy with altered immune cell and especially T-cell homeostasis, reduced Treg numbers and decreased accumulation and functional activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Lastly, we show that application of sHLA-G reduced abortion rates in Qa-2 deficient mice by inducing MDSC. Our results highlight the importance of an interaction between HLA-G and MDSC for pregnancy success and the therapeutic potential of HLA-G for treatment of immunological pregnancy complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Wenying Huang ◽  
Shuxuan Zhang

Preeclampsia (PE) is a common and proprietary complication during pregnancy. The correlation was found between the levels of HtrA3 and TGF-β 2 and preeclampsia (PE). This study aimed to detect the HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in different parts of the third trimester (maternal serum, placenta). The 102 pregnant women who were eligible for enrollment in the obstetric examination at Tengzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital from June 2020 to December 2020 were selected as the research objects. 28 cases diagnosed with PE were set up as the observation group 1, and 24 cases diagnosed with severe PE were set up as the observation group 2. Select 50 normal pregnant women as the control group and research the expressions of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in maternal blood and placental tissues of patients with PE. ELISA was used to measure the concentration of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in maternal blood. The distribution of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in the placenta was observed by immunohistochemical techniques (IHC) and mean optical density value (MOD). S/D was measured by using color Doppler ultrasonic. The concentration of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 in the maternal blood and placenta tissue was higher in severe PE compared with PE and normotensive pregnancy, respectively ( P < 0.05 ). There is a negative correlation between the level of HtrA3 and TGF-β2 and the birthweight of newborns both in maternal plasma and placenta tissue in preeclampsia and positive correlation between HtrA3 and TGF-β2 levels and S/D. HtrA3 and TGF-β2 may correlate with severity of PE and their neonatal adverse outcomes.

Reproduction ◽  
2022 ◽  
Richard G Lea ◽  
Beatrice Mandon-Pepin ◽  
Benoit Loup ◽  
Elodie Poumerol ◽  
Luc Jouneau ◽  

Exposure of the fetal testis to numerous individual environmental chemicals is frequently associated with dysregulated development, leading to impaired adult reproductive competence. However, ‘real-life’ exposure involves complex mixtures of environmental chemicals (ECs). Here we test the consequences, for the male fetus, of exposing pregnant ewes to EC mixtures derived from pastures treated with biosolids fertiliser (processed human sewage). Fetal testes from continuously exposed ewes were either unaffected at Day 80 or exhibited a reduced area of testis immunostained for CYP17A1 protein at Day 140. Fetal testes from Day 140 pregnant ewes exposed transiently for 80 day periods during early (0-80 days), mid (30-110 days) or late (60-140 days) pregnancy, had fewer Sertoli cells and reduced testicular area stained for CYP17A1. Male fetuses from ewes exposed during late pregnancy also exhibited reduced fetal body, adrenal and testis mass, anogenital distance and lowered testosterone: collectively indicative of an anti-androgenic effect. Exposure limited to early gestation induced more testis transcriptome changes than observed for continuously exposed Day 140 fetuses. These data suggest that a short period of EC exposure does not allow sufficient time for the testis to adapt. Consequently, testicular transcriptomic changes induced during the first 80 days of gestation may equate with phenotypic effects observed at Day 140. In contrast, relatively fewer changes in the testis transcriptome in fetuses exposed continuously to ECs throughout gestation is associated with less severe consequences. Unless corrected by or during puberty, these differential effects would predictably have adverse outcomes for adult testicular function and fertility.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 5-12
Yahia Y.k. ◽  
Khalid K.K.

Current work was conducted to investigate the histological architecture of the uterine tube and uterus during the period of late pregnancy in rabbits. Twelve adult local breed rabbits were used. The samples from different parts of the uterine tube were prepared for histological study after staining with H&E, Masson’s trichrome and combine Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS. The pre ampulla was a narrow tube and its tunica mucosa had slightly long simple mucosal folds lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium, the ampulla had a wide lumen and its tunica mucosa displayed several highly tall branched mucosal folds with few short simple folds while the isthmus was the narrowest region and its tunica mucosa displayed few of tall and short simple mucosal folds. The mucosa of three parts of the uterine tube was lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium which is composed of three types of cells: mucous secretory cells, non-secretory cells and basal cells, the mucous secretory cells were the predominant type and revealed secretory activities. The lamina propria-submucosa of the uterine tube was composed of cellular connective tissue and tunica muscularis. The uterus had a very thick wall with well-recognized endometrium and myometrium, the endometrium was composed of many-branched and simple endometrial folds that were covered by multinucleated syncytial cells and simple cuboidal epithelial cells. Lamina propria was composed of loose connective tissue had scattered groups of well growing simple uterine glands that showed secretory activities. The current result showed that the uterus during the late period of pregnancy was differed from those of non-pregnant rabbits, while the uterine tube at late pregnancy has a structure that appeared prepared for the next physiological period.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (3) ◽  
pp. 71-78
Lilis Khotijah ◽  
M Yasin ◽  
Didid Diapari ◽  
Dilla Mareistia Fassah

The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility and physiological status of local sheep at late pregnancy fed with flushing diet containing palm oil, lemuru oil, and their combination. In this research, the livestock used were 12 female local sheep at late pregnancy with an average body weight of 43.58 ± 5.57 kg were placed in metabolic cages. This study used a randomized block design (RBD) with 4 treatments and 3 block replications. The treatments were P1 = control ration (30% grass + 70% concentrate), P2 = control ration + 6% palm oil supplementation, P3 = control ration + 3% lemuru oil and 3% palm oil supplementation, P4 = control ration + 6% lemuru oil supplementation. The feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, and physiological status were measured in this study. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA. Means values differences were analyzed using Duncan test. The results showed that the addition of palm oil and lemuru oil to the concentrate diet increased (p<0.05) crude fat consumption, dry matter digestibility, and crude fat digestibility, but decreased (p<0.05) Nitrogen free extract consumption. Addition of palm oil and lemuru oil on the concentrate diet had no significant effect on dry matter consumption, crude protein consumption, crude fiber consumption, crude protein digestibility, crude fiber digestibility, Nitrogen free extract digestibility, and TDN value. The treatments did not affect significantly  on physiological status. It can be concluded that the use of 6% palm oil in the ration can increase crude fat consumption and crude fat digestibility in pregnant ewes. Key words:        digestibility, ewes, flushing, oil, physiological status

Mukta Jain ◽  
Komal Vijaywargiya ◽  
Aayushi Ruia

Congenital uterine anomalies occur due to abnormal fusion of Mullerian duct during embryonic life. It is associated with high incidences of reproductive failures and adverse obstetrical outcomes. It may be associated with malpresentation, preterm labour or recurrent pregnancy losses. The association of congenital anomalies and early pregnancy loss has been well established but its adverse effect on late pregnancy in form of malpresentation, preterm deliveries has not yet been elaborated. Hence, this case series aimed to summarize the incidence and perinatal outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital uterine anomalies undergoing cesarean section. This was a case series which was conducted on women who underwent cesarean section at P. C. Sethi hospital, Indore between time period of October 2020 to September 2021. Out of total 1835 cesarean undergoing patients, 12 patients were found to have uterine anomalies. Out of 12 patients, 9 (75%) patients were associated with malpresentation, 4 (33.3%) patients had preterm delivery and 6 (50%) patients had low birth weight babies. Hence it can be said that women with congenital uterine anomalies were at higher incidence of malpresentation and preterm deliveries. Presence of congenital uterine anomalies were associated with adverse obstetrical outcome. This knowledge warrants the need for a larger case control study to extrapolate these findings to the general population and also to recommend the need for universal prenatal screening for uterine anomalies to improve the obstetrical and perinatal outcome in patients with uterine anomalies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (3) ◽  
pp. 612-624
Tati Murniati ◽  
Ahmad Muchlis

Ketersediaan nutrisi pada induk baik melalui suplai dari makanan maupun hasil metabolisme induk mempunyai pengaruh sangat luas pada pertumbuhan fetus selama kebuntingan.  Sangat diperlukan upaya perbaikan ketersediaan nutrisi melalui peningkatan sekresi endogen hormon metabolisme dan metabolit penting dan faktor-faktor pertumbuhan lainnya.  Pengetahuan profil metabolik dapat berguna dalam memprediksi masalah metabolik.  Penelitian ini dirancang mengikuti pola factorial  2 x 4 dengan 9 ulangan, sehingga jumlah kambing yang digunakan sebanyak 72 ekor induk kambing, yang terdiri dari kelompok kambing Peranakan Etawa dan kambing Kacang Pemberian pakan selama kebuntingan dibagi dalam 3 perlakuan  induk bunting awal (umur kebuntingan 1 sampai 3 bulan), induk bunting akhir (umur kebuntingan 3 sampai 5 bulan), induk bunting tampa pemberian pakan suplemen dan Induk bunting dengan suplementasi selama kebuntingan.  Pemberian pakan suplemen dapat meningkatkan pertambahan berat badan induk bunting.  Waktu yang optimum pemberian pakan suplemen pada induk bunting memberikan pertambahan berat badan yang tinggi pada umur kebuntingan 1 sampai 3 bulan (awal).  Kandungan glukosa darah dipengaruhi oleh jenis kambing dan umur kebuntingan.  Kandungan glukosa darah tertinggi pada induk yang diberi pakan suplemen selama kebuntingan tetapi tidak berbeda pada kebuntingan awal dan akhir.  Kandungan metabolit darah (urea dan kreatinine) tidak dipengaruhi oleh umur kebuntingan, dan kandungan metabolit darah relatif lebih tinggi pada ternak yang diberi pakan suplemen The availability of nutrients in the mother either through the supply of food or the results of the metabolism of the mother has a very broad influence on the growth of the fetus during pregnancy. It is necessary to improve the availability of nutrients by increasing the endogenous secretion of metabolic hormones and important metabolites and other growth factors. Knowledge of the metabolic profile can be useful in predicting metabolic problems. This study was designed to follow a 2 x 4 factorial pattern with 9 replications, so that the number of goats used were 72 mother goats, consisting of Etawa Peranakan goats and Kacang goats. 3 months), late pregnant women (gestational age 3 to 5 months), pregnant women without supplementation of feed and pregnant women with supplementation during pregnancy. Supplementary feeding can increase the weight gain of pregnant mothers. The optimum time of giving supplementary feed to pregnant mothers gives high weight gain at 1 to 3 months of gestation (early). Blood glucose content is influenced by the type of goat and gestational age. The blood glucose content was highest in broodstock fed supplements during pregnancy but did not differ in early and late pregnancy. The content of blood metabolites (urea and creatinine) was not affected by gestational age, and the content of blood metabolites was relatively higher in livestock fed supplementary diets.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Kirsti Krohn Garnæs ◽  
Trude Elvebakk ◽  
Øyvind Salvesen ◽  
Signe Nilssen Stafne ◽  
Siv Mørkved ◽  

Women with obesity have increased risk for hyperglycemia during pregnancy, with negative health consequences for mother and child. We aimed to investigate adherence to nutritional recommendations in early pregnancy and to examine associations between early pregnancy dietary intake and late pregnancy glycemia among women with obesity. We included 120 women with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 who participated in one of two randomized controlled trials. The participants completed a food frequency questionnaire in early pregnancy (gestational weeks 12–22). Fasting and 120 min glucose tolerance after ingestion of 75 g glucose were assessed in late pregnancy (gestational weeks 32–37). About 90% of the participants reported early pregnancy diary intake within the recommendations. Average intakes of vitamin D, iron, and folate were below recommended levels. High intakes of dairy products and protein in early pregnancy were associated with lower fasting glucose in late pregnancy, whereas high intake of bread was associated with lower 120 min glucose. There were no clear associations between single dietary variables and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis in late pregnancy. In conclusion, some early pregnancy dietary variables were associated with late pregnancy glycemia. Potential causality of these findings should be investigated in future studies.

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