flower buds
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xianjun Feng ◽  
Jiajun Ma ◽  
Zhiqian Liu ◽  
Xuan Li ◽  
Yinghua Wu ◽  

Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites that play important defensive roles in cruciferous plants. Chinese flowering cabbage, one of the most common vegetable crops, is rich in GSLs and thus has the potential to reduce the risk of cancer in humans. Many genes that are involved in GSL biosynthesis and metabolism have been identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana; however, few studies investigated the genes related to GSL biosynthesis and metabolism in Chinese flowering cabbage. In the present study, the GSL composition and content in three different organs of Chinese flowering cabbage (leaf, stalk, and flower bud) were determined. Our results showed that the total GSL content in flower buds was significantly higher than in stalks and leaves, and aliphatic GSLs were the most abundant GSL type. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the variations of GSL content, we analyzed the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in GSL biosynthesis and transport in different tissues of Chinese flowering cabbage using RNA sequencing; the expression levels of most genes were found to be consistent with the pattern of total GSL content. Correlation and consistency analysis of differentially expressed genes from different organs with the GSL content revealed that seven genes (Bra029966, Bra012640, Bra016787, Bra011761, Bra006830, Bra011759, and Bra029248) were positively correlated with GSL content. These findings provide a molecular basis for further elucidating GSL biosynthesis and transport in Chinese flowering cabbage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jesús Guillamón Guillamón ◽  
Federico Dicenta ◽  
Raquel Sánchez-Pérez

Endodormancy in temperate fruit trees like Prunus is a protector state that allows the trees to survive in the adverse conditions of autumn and winter. During this process, plants accumulate chill hours. Flower buds require a certain number of chill hours to release from endodormancy, known as chilling requirements. This step is crucial for proper flowering and fruit set, since incomplete fulfillment of the chilling requirements produces asynchronous flowering, resulting in low quality flowers, and fruits. In recent decades, global warming has endangered this chill accumulation. Because of this fact, many agrochemicals have been used to promote endodormancy release. One of the first and most efficient agrochemicals used for this purpose was hydrogen cyanamide. The application of this agrochemical has been found to advance endodormancy release and synchronize flowering time, compressing the flowering period and increasing production in many species, including apple, grapevine, kiwi, and peach. However, some studies have pointed to the toxicity of this agrochemical. Therefore, other non-toxic agrochemicals have been used in recent years. Among them, Erger® + Activ Erger® and Syncron® + NitroActive® have been the most popular alternatives. These two treatments have been shown to efficiently advance endodormancy release in most of the species in which they have been applied. In addition, other less popular agrochemicals have also been applied, but their efficiency is still unclear. In recent years, several studies have focused on the biochemical and genetic variation produced by these treatments, and significant variations have been observed in reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellin (GA) levels and in the genes responsible for their biosynthesis. Given the importance of this topic, future studies should focus on the discovery and development of new environmentally friendly agrochemicals for improving the modulation of endodormancy release and look more deeply into the effects of these treatments in plants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-36
Claudia Regina Barbieri ◽  
Gilmar Antônio Nava ◽  

Understanding the dormancy phases and dynamics of commercial cultivars in the regions where they are grown allows for the implementation of different cultural practices and aids in the understanding of the temperature requirements for collaboration with genetic improvement programs. The objective of this study was to determine the budding, flowering, and fruit set rates of peach trees cultivated in the municipality of Dois Vizinhos, Southwestern Paraná, Brazil. The present work was developed using the collection of peach trees in the fruit growing sector of the Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná. Sixteen peach cultivars were evaluated: Rubimel, Leonense, Coral, Marli, Charme, Riograndense, Douradão, Chimarrita, Granada, BR-1, Bonão, and Eldorado (all planted in 2009), as well as Regalo, Kampai, Fascínio, and Zilli (planted in 2014). The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of one plant each, in a 16 × 2 bifactorial arrangement (cultivars × year/harvest). Phenology evaluations were performed weekly by counting open (anthesis) and sprouted flower buds, and the fruit set rate was measured just before fruit thinning. Flowering (%), budding (%), and fruit set (%) rates were calculated. It was found that the year/harvest 2016 promoted the highest rates of sprouting and fruit set. The Bonão cultivar showed greater flowering intensity and regularity in the crop years evaluated (2016 and 2017). Coral and Kampai present fruit sets with greater intensities and regularities when compared to the other cultivars evaluated under the climatic condition of the municipality of Dois Vizinhos. The Riograndense cultivar showed greater irregularity in flowering and fruit production.

2022 ◽  
Masaya Ishikawa ◽  
Hiroyuki Ide ◽  
Tetsuya Tsujii ◽  
Timothy Stait‐Gardner ◽  
Hikaru Kubo ◽  

EvoDevo ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Marina M. Strelin ◽  
Eduardo E. Zattara ◽  
Kristian Ullrich ◽  
Mareike Schallenberg-Rüdinger ◽  
Stefan Rensing

Abstract Background Understanding the relationship between macroevolutionary diversity and variation in organism development is an important goal of evolutionary biology. Variation in the morphology of several plant and animal lineages is attributed to pedomorphosis, a case of heterochrony, where an ancestral juvenile shape is retained in an adult descendant. Pedomorphosis facilitated morphological adaptation in different plant lineages, but its cellular and molecular basis needs further exploration. Plant development differs from animal development in that cells are enclosed by cell walls and do not migrate. Moreover, in many plant lineages, the differentiated epidermis of leaves, and leaf-derived structures, such as petals, limits organ growth. We, therefore, proposed that pedomorphosis in leaves, and in leaf-derived structures, results from delayed differentiation of epidermal cells with respect to reproductive maturity. This idea was explored for petal evolution, given the importance of corolla morphology for angiosperm reproductive success. Results By comparing cell morphology and transcriptional profiles between 5 mm flower buds and mature flowers of an entomophile and an ornitophile Loasoideae species (a lineage that experienced transitions from bee- to hummingbird-pollination), we show that evolution of pedomorphic petals of the ornithophile species likely involved delayed differentiation of epidermal cells with respect to flower maturity. We also found that developmental mechanisms other than pedomorphosis might have contributed to evolution of corolla morphology. Conclusions Our results highlight a need for considering alternatives to the flower-centric perspective when studying the origin of variation in flower morphology, as this can be generated by developmental processes that are also shared with leaves. Graphical Abstract

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 221
Hyejin Hyeon ◽  
Ho Bong Hyun ◽  
Boram Go ◽  
Sung Chun Kim ◽  
Yong-Hwan Jung ◽  

Magnolia flower buds are a source of herbal medicines with various active compounds. In this study, differences in the distribution and abundance of major essential oils, phenolic acids, and primary metabolites between white flower buds of Magnolia heptapeta and violet flower buds of Magnolia denudata var. purpurascens were characterised. A multivariate analysis revealed clear separation between the white and violet flower buds with respect to primary and secondary metabolites closely related to metabolic systems. White flower buds contained large amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons (MH), phenolic acids, aromatic amino acids, and monosaccharides, related to the production of isoprenes, as MH precursors, and the activity of MH synthase. However, concentrations of β-myrcene, a major MH compound, were higher in violet flower buds than in white flower buds, possibly due to higher threonine levels and low acidic conditions induced by comparatively low levels of some organic acids. Moreover, levels of stress-related metabolites, such as oxygenated monoterpenes, proline, and glutamic acid, were higher in violet flower buds than in white flower buds. Our results support the feasibility of metabolic profiling for the identification of phytochemical differences and improve our understanding of the correlated biological pathways for primary and secondary metabolites.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 2011
Chunling Zhang ◽  
Yalin Sun ◽  
Xiaomin Yu ◽  
Hang Li ◽  
Manzhu Bao ◽  

Members of AP1/FUL subfamily genes play an essential role in the regulation of floral meristem transition, floral organ identity, and fruit ripping. At present, there have been insufficient studies to explain the function of the AP1/FUL-like subfamily genes in Asteraceae. Here, we cloned two euAP1 clade genes TeAP1-1 and TeAP1-2, and three euFUL clade genes TeFUL1, TeFUL2, and TeFUL3 from marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Expression profile analysis demonstrated that TeAP1-1 and TeAP1-2 were mainly expressed in receptacles, sepals, petals, and ovules. TeFUL1 and TeFUL3 were expressed in flower buds, stems, and leaves, as well as reproductive tissues, while TeFUL2 was mainly expressed in flower buds and vegetative tissues. Overexpression of TeAP1-2 or TeFUL2 in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering, implying that these two genes might regulate the floral transition. Yeast two-hybrid analysis indicated that TeAP1/FUL proteins only interacted with TeSEP proteins to form heterodimers and that TeFUL2 could also form a homodimer. In general, TeAP1-1 and TeAP1-2 might play a conserved role in regulating sepal and petal identity, similar to the functions of MADS-box class A genes, while TeFUL genes might display divergent functions. This study provides a theoretical basis for the study of AP1/FUL-like genes in Asteraceae species.

Mar Grimalt ◽  
Santiago García-Martínez ◽  
Pedro Carbonell ◽  
Francisca Hernández ◽  
Pilar Legua ◽  

AbstractGenetic diversity and variability between populations is essential for the long-term survival of plant species as well as their adaptation to different habitats. The Capparis spinosa L. has two subspecies in Spain, spinosa with stipules thorny and rupestris without them. In Spain, the subspecies used for its cultivation is spinosa, which is difficult to manipulate due to its stipules thorny. The capers, unripe fruits and tender shoots are used as food. The caper plant is a rich source of phenolic compounds, due to that many flavonoids have been found in different parts of caper plant and in high quantities, which indicates that it is a good source of functional compounds both as food and for nutraceutical applications. There are no published works on the differences in biochemical and functional compounds of both subspecies, so in this work 32 varieties have been genetically analyzed to know their subspecies. Afterwards, various biochemical and functional parameters have been analyzed to find out if they present differences between both subspecies. From the results of the biochemical and functional parameters studied, there are no difference between the spinosa and rupestis subspecies, in all the parameters studied, except chlorophylls. There was more difference between the results of the subspecies spinosa among them, than with the subspecies rupestris. For all this, it can be concluded that the rupestris subspecies that does not present stipules thorniness can be cultivated, instead of the spinosa subspecies that does present them, without losing functional or nutritional characteristics of the caper buds.

2021 ◽  
Vol 290 ◽  
pp. 110520
László Szalay ◽  
József Bakos ◽  
Ágnes Tósaki ◽  
Belay Teweldemedhin Keleta ◽  
Veronika Froemel-Hajnal ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document