musca domestica
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Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 127
Justin Heath Turner ◽  
Willian Pinto Paim ◽  
Mayara Fernanda Maggioli ◽  
Cristina Mendes Peter ◽  
Robert Miknis ◽  

House flies (Musca domestica) are often present in swine farms worldwide. These flies utilize animal secretions and waste as a food source. House flies may harbor and transport microbes and pathogens acting as mechanical vectors for diseases. Senecavirus A (SVA) infection in pigs occurs via oronasal route, and animals shed high virus titers to the environment. Additionally, SVA possesses increased environmental resistance. Due to these reasons, we investigated the tenacity of SVA in house flies. Five groups of flies, each composed of ten females and ten males, were exposed to SVA, titer of 109.3 tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50/mL). Groups of male and female flies were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure. For comparison purposes, groups of flies were exposed to Swinepox virus (SwPV). Infectious SVA was identified in all tested groups. Successful isolation of SVA demonstrated the titers varied between 106.8 and 102.8 TCID50/mL in female groups and varied from 105.85 to 103.8 TCID50/mL in male groups. In contrast, infectious SwPV was only detected in the female group at 6 h. The significant SVA infectious titer for prolonged periods of time, up to 48 h, indicates a potential role of flies in SVA transmission.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chunmei You ◽  
Zelin Li ◽  
Yuanzhi Yin ◽  
Naretuya Na ◽  
Xiwu Gao

Both insects and mammals all exhibit a daily fluctuation of susceptibility to chemicals at different times of the day. However, this phenomenon has not been further studied in the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and a better understanding of the house fly on chronobiology should be useful for controlling this widespread disease vector. Here we explored diel time-of-day variations in insecticide susceptibility, enzyme activities, and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme gene expressions. The house fly was most tolerant to beta-cypermethrin in the late photophase at Zeitgeber time (ZT) 8 and 12 [i.e., 8 and 12 h after light is present in the light-dark cycle (LD)]. The activities of cytochrome P450, GST, and CarE enzymes were determined in the house flies collected at various time, indicating that rhythms occur in P450 and CarE activities. Subsequently, we observed diel rhythmic expression levels of detoxifying genes, and CYP6D1 and MdαE7 displayed similar expression patterns with enzyme activities in LD conditions, respectively. No diel rhythm was observed for CYP6D3 expression. These data demonstrated a diel rhythm of metabolic detoxification enzymes and insecticide susceptibility in M. domestica. In the future, the time-of-day insecticide efficacy could be considered into the management of the house fly.

Chaima Kouki ◽  
Linda Manaa ◽  
Emna Bahloul ◽  
Nadine Kammoun ◽  
Sonia Boudaya ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 159-169
Sri Yusmalinar ◽  
Tjandra Anggraeni ◽  
Ramadhani Eka Putra ◽  
Ashari Zain ◽  

A previous report has indicated that in many regions of Indonesia, populations of Musca domestica Linnaeus have shown very high resistance to permethrin and low resistance to imidacloprid. In this study, the resistance status to permethrin and imidacloprid was updated using a topical application and feeding bioassay. Six housefly strains originated from six highly populated cities in Indonesia, namely Serang (SRG), Jakarta (JKT), Bandung (BDG), Semarang (SMG), Yogyakarta (JOG), and Surabaya (SBY). A seventh strain (Danish Pest Infestation Laboratory (DPIL)) served as the control. Each strain was tested for resistance to the two insecticides. In addition, the rate of development of resistance to the two insecticides was measured over ten generations. The results indicated that all field strains showed very high resistance to permethrin. The highest resistance level recorded was in the SRG strain (RR50 = 2880), and the lowest was in the JKT strain (RR50 = 520). Repeated application of permethrin over ten generations increased the resistance level by about 2.7–32.73-fold as compared to the level of their respective parental populations. On the other hand, most strains showed low to moderate resistance to imidacloprid, in which the SRG strain had the highest resistance level (RR50 = 15.5) and the SBY strain had the lowest (RR50 = 2.0). Repeated application of imidacloprid over ten generations increased the resistance level by about 3.25–17.41-fold. The findings, which is the second report of housefly resistance in Indonesia since 2016, provide a crucial foundation for developing appropriate housefly integrated pest management strategies in highly populated areas in Indonesia.

Insects ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1097
Hamady Dieng ◽  
Tomomitsu Satho ◽  
Nor Hafisa Syafina Binti Mohd Radzi ◽  
Fatimah Abang ◽  
Nur Faeza A. Kassim ◽  

Flowers and their spatial clustering are important parameters that mediate the foraging behavior and visitation rate of pollinating insects. Visual stimuli are crucial for triggering behavioral changes in the house fly, Musca domestica, which regularly visits plants for feeding and reproduction. The success of bait technology, which is the principal means of combatting flies, is adversely affected by reduced attractiveness and ineffective application techniques. Despite evidence that house flies have color vision capacity, respond to flowers, and exhibit color and pattern preference, the potential of artificial flowers as attractive factors has not been explored. The present study was performed to investigate whether artificial floral designs can lure and kill house flies. Starved wild house flies were presented with equal opportunities to acquire sugar meals, to which boric acid had been added as a toxin, from one flower arrangement (blue-dominated design, BDD; yellow-dominated design, YDD; or pink-dominated design, PDD), and a non-toxic white design (WDD). We also allowed house flies to forage within an enclosure containing two non-toxic floral designs (WDDs). The differences in mortality between the two environments with and without toxicant were examined. The survival rate of Musca domestica was extremely high when WDDs containing non-toxic sugar sources were the only feeding sites available. When given an option to forage in an environment containing a BDD and a WDD, house flies showed a high mortality rate (76%) compared to their counterparts maintained in the WDD environment (2%). When kept in an enclosure containing one YDD and a WDD, flies showed a mortality rate of 88%; however, no mortality occurred among flies confined to a compound with a WDD pair. When provided an even chance of foraging in an enclosure containing a mixed pair of floral arrangements (PDD and WDD) and another with two WDDs, flies showed a higher mortality rate (78%) in the first environment. However, the maximum survival rate (100%) was seen in the WDD environment. Exposure to YDD tended to result in a greater mortality rate than with the two other floral designs. Mortality gradually increased with time among flies exposed to tested artificial floral designs. The results presented here clearly indicated that artificial flower arrangements with a toxic sugar reward were strikingly attractive for house flies when their preferred color (white) was present. These observations offer novel possibilities for future development of flower mimic-based house fly control.

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