Disease Control
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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 93-103
Author(s):  
Yongqing Yu ◽  
Yishan Zou ◽  
Yu Sun

As obesity becomes increasingly common worldwide [1], more people want to lose weight to improve their health and image. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), long-term changes in daily eating habits (such as regarding food/ nutrition type, calorie intake) are successful at keeping weights off [2]. Therefore, it would be helpful to have an artificial intelligence (AI) mobile program that identifies the types of food the user consumes and automatically calculates the total calories. This paper examines the development and optimization of an 11-categorical food classification model based on the Mobile-Net neural network using Python. Specifically, it classifies any food image as one of bread, dairy, dessert, egg product, fried food, meat, noodles, rice, seafood, soup, or fruit/vegetables. Methods of optimization include data preprocessing and learning rate and batch size adjustments. Experimental results show that scaling image inputs to standard size (Python Numpy resize) function), 300 training epochs, dynamic learning rate (start with 0.001 and *0.1 for every 30 epochs), and a batch size of 16 yields our best model of 83.44% accuracy.


2021 ◽  
Vol 72 (1) ◽  
pp. 26-30
Author(s):  
Sonia-Corenlia Bădulici

Abstract The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) was recognized in December 2019 as a cause of severe pneumonia and has now led to a global pandemic [1, 2]. Respiratory illnesses caused by COVID-19 cover a whole range of severities. Identifying the risk factors and protective factors for the severity of COVID-19 disease is essential to direct the development of new treatments and infection prevention strategies. The first large series of cases identified several risk factors for severe forms of the disease, including advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, exposure to tobacco, and obstructive pulmonary chronic disease [1, 3]. The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention published a significant case series study of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (72 314 cases, updated through February 11, 2020) [4, 5]. The authors of this paper summarized key findings from this report and discussed emerging understanding of and conclusions from the COVID-19 epidemic.


Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2288
Author(s):  
Tao Ji ◽  
Irene Salotti ◽  
Chaoyang Dong ◽  
Ming Li ◽  
Vittorio Rossi

Ripe rot caused by Colletotrichum spp. is a serious threat in many vineyards, and its control relies mainly on the repeated use of fungicides. A mechanistic, dynamic model for the prediction of grape ripe rot epidemics was developed by using information and data from a systematic literature review. The model accounts for i) the production and maturation of the primary inoculum; ii) the infection caused by the primary inoculum; iii) the production of a secondary inoculum; and iv) the infection caused by the secondary inoculum. The model was validated in 19 epidemics (vineyard × year combinations) between 1980 and 2014 in China, Japan, and the USA. The observed disease incidence was correlated with the number of infection events predicted by the model and their severity (ρ = 0.878 and 0.533, respectively, n=37, P≤ 0.001). The model also accurately predicted the disease severity progress during the season, with a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.975 between the observed and predicted data. Overall, the model provided an accurate description of the grape ripe rot system, as well as reliable predictions of infection events and of disease progress during the season. The model increases our understanding of ripe rot epidemics in vineyards and will help guide disease control. By using the model, growers can schedule fungicides based on the risk of infection rather than on a seasonal spray calendar.


Author(s):  
Senhu Wang ◽  
Lambert Zixin Li ◽  
Natasha van Antwerpen ◽  
Sutrisno Suparman ◽  
Mergy Gayatri ◽  
...  

Poor public health information is a hurdle in infectious disease control. The study aims to examine whether healthcare workers adhere to hand hygiene and mask-wearing guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic and to explore their exposure to misinformation about the pandemic as a predictor. A cross-sectional survey was sent to 518 healthcare workers across Indonesia, the fourth largest nation in the world, in September 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The respondents reported whether they adhered to the guidelines of hand hygiene and mask wearing and whether they believed in four pieces of misinformation about the origin, severity, contagion, and prevention of COVID-19. The association between misinformation and hand hygiene and mask wearing was tested with logistic regression models controlling for demographic and health-related covariates. Approximately 25% of healthcare workers did not always adhere to hand hygiene guidelines and approximately 5% did not adhere to mask-wearing guidelines. There are significant associations between all four pieces of misinformation and hand hygiene and mask wearing. It is important to improve public health information about COVID-19, which may hold key to healthcare workers’ hand hygiene and mask wearing and to protect their health and patients’ safety.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Saba Mir ◽  
Aafreen Sakina ◽  
Khalid Z. Masoodi ◽  
Khalid M. Bhat ◽  
Bilal A. Padder ◽  
...  

Abstract Scab caused by Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint. is the most important fungal disease of apple. Fungicide application is a widely practiced method of disease control. The use of chemicals is however, cost intensive, tedious and ecologically unsafe. Development of genetic resistance and breeding of resistant cultivars is most reliable and a safest option. One such source of scab resistance happens to be the variety ‘Shireen’, released from SKUASTKashmir. However, till date the nature of resistance and its genetic control has not been characterized. The aim of this research was to elucidate the genetic basis of scab resistance in Shireen. The present study helped us to identify two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosome 2 and 8 and six potential CDGs for the polygenic resistance in ‘Shireen’. The genomic region corresponding to the mapped QTLs in LG 2 and LG 8 of ‘Shireen’ was examined for candidate genes possibly related to scab resistance using in silico analysis. The QTLs mapped in the genetic background of Shireen are the novel QTLs and may be transferred to desirable genetic backgrounds and provide opportunities for isolation and cloning of genes apart from their utility in order to achieve durable resistance to scab.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elena Lázaro ◽  
David Makowski ◽  
Antonio Vicent

AbstractThe European Green Deal aims to reduce the use of chemical pesticides by half by 2030. Decision support systems are tools to help farmers schedule fungicide spraying based on disease risk and can reduce fungicide application frequency and overall use. However, the potential benefit of decision support systems compared to traditional calendar-based strategies has not yet been rigorously quantified. Here we synthesise 80 experiments and show that globally decision support systems can reduce fungicide treatments by at least 50% without compromising disease control. For a given fixed number of fungicide sprays, decision support systems were as effective as calendar-based programs in reducing disease incidence. When the number of sprays was halved, the increase in disease incidence was lower for decision support system-based strategies than calendar-based strategies. Our findings suggest that decision support systems can reduce fungicide use while limiting the risk to plant health and resistance development.


2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Adikshita Sharma ◽  
Inder Mohan Sharma ◽  
Monica Sharma ◽  
Kishor Sharma ◽  
Amit Sharma

Abstract Background Mango anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the most important diseases of mango crop. It mainly attacks leaves, flowers, young fruits and twigs and also appears as a post-harvest disease of ripened fruits. Application of bio-control agents has huge potential in plant disease management. The goal of the present research was to establish the potential of individual and combined bio-control agents for the management of mango anthracnose under in vitro and under field conditions. Results The antagonistic reaction of six fungi, six bacteria and nine yeasts against C. gloeosporioides on potato dextrose agar medium and malt extract agar medium was observed among which Trichoderma harzianum was found to be the most efficient with 89.26% mycelial growth inhibition. Evaluation of bio-control agents against anthracnose disease development on mango fruit revealed that dip treatment of mango fruits in spore suspension (1.2 × 104 cfu/ml) of T. harzianum for 5 min was the most effective and provided disease control to the tune of 81.67%. Combined application of effective bio-control agents as a post-harvest fruit dip treatment was also evaluated against the mango anthracnose on mango fruits, where the treatment of T. harzianum + Pichia anomala was very effective with 93.39% disease control. Under field conditions, three consecutive sprays of T. harzianum, starting with the initiation of disease on leaves, followed by other two sprays at an interval of 15 days during 2015 and 2016 were found the best for the management of mango anthracnose disease both on leaves and on fruits at two locations. Conclusions The combined and individual applications of bio-control agents, viz.T. harzianum, Bacillus subtilis and P. anomala, through foliar spray or by fruit dip had the potential to control mango anthracnose. The bio-formulations of these bio-control agents had the potential to replace chemical fungicides and also protect the natural environment, thus playing a significant role in integrated disease management.


Author(s):  
Alicia Bao ◽  
Andrew R. Barsky ◽  
Russell Maxwell ◽  
Justin E. Bekelman ◽  
Stefan Both ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose Long-term data regarding the disease control outcomes of proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with favorable risk intact prostate cancer (PC) are limited. Herein, we report our institution's long-term disease control outcomes in PC patients with clinically localized disease who received PBT as primary treatment. Methods One hundred sixty-six favorable risk PC patients who received definitive PBT to the prostate gland at our institution from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively assessed. The outcomes studied were biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), biochemical failure, local failure, regional failure, distant failure, PC-specific survival, and overall survival. Patterns of failure were also analyzed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to estimate independent predictors of BFFS. Results The median length of follow-up was 8.3 years (range, 1.2–10.5 years). The majority of patients had low-risk disease (58%, n = 96), with a median age of 64 years at the onset of treatment. Of 166 treated men, 13 (7.8%), 8 (4.8%), 2 (1.2%) patient(s) experienced biochemical failure, local failure, regional failure, respectively. Regional failure was seen in an obturator lymph node in 1 patient and the external iliac lymph nodes in the other. None of the patients experienced distant failure. There were 5 (3.0%) deaths, none of which were due to PC. The 5- and 8-year BFFS rate were 97% and 92%, respectively. None of the clinical disease characteristics or treatment-related factors assessed were associated with BFFS on multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling (all P > .05). Conclusion Disease control rates reported in our assessment of PBT were similar to those reported in previous clinically localized intact PC analyses, which used intensity-modulated radiotherapy, three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, or radical prostatectomy as definitive therapy. In addition, BFFS rates were similar, if not improved, to previous PBT studies.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rachayeeta Ray ◽  
Debalina Bhattacharya ◽  
Parimal Karmakar

Abstract Exosomes are small-sized extracellular vesicles. Their size ranges from 30-150 nm and contains proteins, lipids, nucleic acids along other bioactive molecules. It is now also considered as communicating mediators between cells where their content varies with the microenvironment of the cells which may ultimately change numerous physiological and pathological functions of the cells. Because of their small size, safety, biocompatibility, biorecognition, high stability, target specificity, and ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, the exosomes have recently gained attention as a potential nano delivery system. However, the focus of this review article is to cover the latest updates regarding the role of exosomal delivery of different micro RNAs which have an important role in disease control. Micro RNAs, which are of utmost importance as an exosomal cargo, has been reported to show both positive and negative impact on the cell it is targeted or delivered to.


Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1395
Author(s):  
Kiyoka Sawada ◽  
Kentaro Nakayama ◽  
Kohei Nakamura ◽  
Yuki Yoshimura ◽  
Sultana Razia ◽  
...  

Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and genome medicine have contributed to treatment decisions in patients with cancer. Most advanced gynecological cancers develop resistance to chemotherapy and have a poor prognosis. Therefore, we conducted genomic tests in gynecological tumors to examine the efficacy and clinical feasibility of genotype-matched therapy. Target sequencing was performed in 20 cases of gynecological cancers (cervical cancer, 6; endometrial cancer, 6; and ovarian cancer, 6). Both actionable and druggable genes were identified in 95% (19/20) of the cases. Among them, seven patients (35%) received genotype-matched therapy, which was effective in three patients. Of the three patients, one patient with a PTEN mutation received everolimus, another patient with a TSC2 mutation received everolimus and letrozole, and the patient with a BRIP1 mutation received olaparib. Subsequently, disease control in these three patients lasted for more than half a year. However, all patients relapsed between 9 and 13 months after the initiation of genotype-matched therapy. In this study, the response rate of genotype-matched therapy was 43% (3/7), which may have contributed to improved prognoses. Therefore, genotype-matched therapies may help patients with refractory gynecological cancers achieve better outcomes.


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