gene expressions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 827-833
Zhonge Chen ◽  
Yanhua Tang ◽  
Wenyong Jiang ◽  
Xiaoqian Zhou

Aim: To evaluate Stard 3’s effects and relative mechanisms in preadipocyto differentiation by vitro study. Materials and Methods: The 3T3-L1 cell were divided into 5 groups as NC, si-Stard 3, ROS agonist, ROS inhibitor and si-Stard 3+ROS agonist groups. The cell of different groups were evaluated by Oil red O staining and Triglyceride. Evaluating ROS production by DHE and NBT assay. Using RT-qPCR and WB methods to evaluate gene and protein expressions. Results: Compared with NC group, Triglyceride, DHE fluorescence intensity and NBT positive rate were significantly down-regulation in si-Stard 3 and ROS inhibitor groups (P < 0.001, respectively), and were significantly up-regulation in ROS agonist group (P < 0.001, respectively); However, with si-Stard 3 transfection and ROS agonist treatment, compared with si-Stard 3 group, Triglyceride, DHE fluorescence intensity and NBT positive rate were significantly increased in si-Stard 3+ROS agonist group (P < 0.001, respectively). With RT-qPCR and WB assay, Compared with NC group, Stard 3 gene and protein expressions of si-Stard 3 and si-Stard 3+ROS agonist group were significantly depressed (P < 0.001, respectively), AMPK, PPARγ, CEBPα and FABP4 gene expressions were significantly differences in si-Stard 3, ROS agonist and ROS inhibitor groups (P < 0.001, respectively) and p-AMPK, PPARγ, CEBPα and FABP4 protein expressions were significantly differences in si-Stard 3, ROS agonist and ROS inhibitor groups (P < 0.001, respectively), with si-Stard 3 transfection and ROS agonist the relative gene and protein expressions were significantly resumed compared with si-Stard 3 group (P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Stard 3 knockdown had effects to suppress 3T3-L1 cells transformation into adipocytes in vitro study.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. M. S. Shah ◽  
F. Ullah

Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Evy Yulianti ◽  
Sunarti ◽  
Mae Sri Hartati Wahyuningsih

Abstract Background High glucose concentration increases the glycation process which leads to oxidative stress and inflammation, that can cause complications in diabetes. Several medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of diabetes and its complications. One of them is Kappaphycus alvarezii, an algae that has known antidiabetic abilities. This study aimed to examine the effect of K. alvarezii active fraction on plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) levels, renal NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB) gene expressions. Methods Active fraction was obtained from bioassay-guided fractionation with antiglycation ability. In vivo study was performed on twenty Wistar male rats. The level of H2O2 was measured using H2O2 Assay Kit, the Optical Density value measured using spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 405 nm. Plasma TNFα level was measured using ELISA. Renal NOX4 and NFκB gene expression was analyzed using qPCR. Results Active fraction significantly reduced plasma H2O2 but not TNFα levels. Furthermore, renal NOX4 gene expression was lower in the diabetic rat group treated with active fraction compared to the untreated group but not NFκB gene expression. Conclusions K. alvarezii active fraction has an activity to reduce plasma H2O2 as well as renal NOX4 gene expression. Therefore, this fraction could be developed as a potential candidate for diabetes treatment through oxidative stress mechanisms.

2022 ◽  
Chaochen Huang ◽  
Pengbo Li ◽  
Junfeng Cao ◽  
Zishou Zheng ◽  
Jinquan Huang ◽  

Abstract Background: The cryptochromes (CRY) comprise a specific blue light receptor for plants and animals, which play crucial roles in physiological processes of plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. Results: In the present work, a systematical analysis of CRY gene family from five allotetraploid cotton species, G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. tomentosum, G. mustelinum and G. darwinii together with seven diploid species. There were 18, 17, 17, 17, and 17 CRYs identified in G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. tomentosum, G. mustelinum and G. darwinii, respectively, whereas five to nine CRY genes were identified in the diploid species. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein-coding sequences revealed that CRY genes from the allotetraploids G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, three diploid cotton species (G. raimondii, G. herbaceum, and G. arboreum), and Arabidopsis thaliana could be classified into seven clades. Synteny analysis suggested that the homoeolog of G. hirsutum Gh_A02G0384 has undergone an evolutionary loss event in the other four allotetraploid cotton species. Cis-element analysis predicated the possible functions of CRY genes in G. hirsutum. Public RNA-seq data were investigated to analyze the expression patterns of G. hirsutum CRY genes in various tissues as well as gene expressions under abiotic stress treatments. Conclusion: These results indicated the possible functions of G. hirsutum CRY genes in differential tissues as well as in response to abiotic stress during the cotton plants life cycle.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 229
Chi-Shuan Fan ◽  
Chia-Chi Chen ◽  
Li-Li Chen ◽  
Kee Voon Chua ◽  
Hui-Chen Hung ◽  

M2-polarization and the tumoricidal to tumor-promoting transition are commonly observed with tumor-infiltrating macrophages after interplay with cancer cells or/and other stroma cells. Our previous study indicated that macrophage M2-polarization can be induced by extracellular HSP90α (eHSP90α) secreted from endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition-derived cancer-associated fibroblasts. To extend the finding, we herein validated that eHSP90α-induced M2-polarized macrophages exhibited a tumor-promoting activity and the promoted tumor tissues had significant increases in microvascular density but decreases in CD4+ T-cell level. We further investigated the signaling pathways occurring in eHSP90α-stimulated macrophages. When macrophages were exposed to eHSP90α, CD91 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) functioned as the receptor/co-receptor for eHSP90α binding to recruit interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and next elicited a canonical CD91/MyD88–IRAK1/4–IκB kinase α/β (IKKα/β)–nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) signaling pathway. Despite TLR4-MyD88 complex-associated activations of IKKα/β, NF-κB and IRF3 being well-known as involved in macrophage M1-activation, our results demonstrated that the CD91-TLR4-MyD88 complex-associated IRAK1/4−IKKα/β−NF-κB/IRF3 pathway was not only directly involved in M2-associated CD163, CD204, and IL-10 gene expressions but also required for downregulation of M1 inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) were recruited onto MyD88 to induce the phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3). The JAK2/TYK2−STAT-3 signaling is known to associate with tumor promotion. In this study, the MyD88−JAK2/TYK2−STAT-3 pathway was demonstrated to contribute to eHSP90α-induced macrophage M2-polarization by regulating the expressions of M1- and M2-related genes, proangiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor, and phagocytosis-interfering factor Sec22b.

2022 ◽  
Huihui Qi ◽  
Li Luo ◽  
Caijing Lu ◽  
Runze Chen ◽  
Xianyao Zhou ◽  

Vocalization is an essential medium for sexual and social signaling in birds and mammals. Periaqueductal gray (PAG) a conserved midbrain structure is believed to be responsible for innate vocalizations, but its molecular regulation remains largely unknown. Here, through a mouse forward genetic screening we identified one of the key Wnt/β-catenin effectors TCF7L2/TCF4 controls ultrasonic vocalization (USV) production and syllable complexity during maternal deprivation and sexual encounter. Expression of TCF7L2 in PAG excitatory neurons is necessary for the complex trait, while TCF7L2 loss reduces neuronal gene expressions and synaptic transmission in PAG. TCF7L2-mediated vocal control is independent of its β-catenin-binding domain but dependent of its DNA binding ability. Patient mutations associated with severe speech delay disrupt the transcriptional repression effect of TCF7L2, while mice carrying those mutations display severe USV impairments. Therefore, we conclude that TCF7L2 orchestrates gene expression in midbrain to control vocal production through a transcriptional repression mechanism.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 170
Qingli Dong ◽  
Xinxin Lu ◽  
Binru Gao ◽  
Yangtai Liu ◽  
Muhammad Zohaib Aslam ◽  

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for many food outbreaks worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the single and combined effect of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum CICC 6257 (L. plantarum) on the growth, adhesion, invasion, and virulence of gene expressions of Listeria monocytogenes 19112 serotype 4b (L. monocytogenes). Results showed that L. plantarum combined with 2% and 4% (w/v) FOS significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes (3–3.5 log10 CFU/mL reduction) at the incubation temperature of 10 °C and 25 °C. Under the same combination condition, the invasion rates of L. monocytogenes to Caco-2 and BeWo cells were reduced more than 90% compared to the result of the untreated group. After L. plantarum was combined with the 2% and 4% (w/v) FOS treatment, the gene expression of actin-based motility, sigma factor, internalin A, internalin B, positive regulatory factor A, and listeriolysin O significantly (p < 0.05) were reduced over 91%, 77%, 92%, 89%, 79%, and 79% compared to the result of the untreated group, respectively. The inhibition level of the L. plantarum and FOS combination against L. monocytogenes was higher than that of FOS or L. plantarum alone. Overall, these results indicated that the L. plantarum and FOS combination might be an effective formula against L. monocytogenes.

Shamseddin Ahmadi ◽  
Kayvan Masoudi ◽  
Shiva Mohammadi Talvar ◽  
Mohammad Zobeiri ◽  
Amir Khanizad ◽  

Backgrounds: Molecular mechanisms involved in adverse effects of morphine, including tolerance and dependence, have remained elusive. We examined possible alterations in the gene expression of proenkephalin (Penk), prodynorphin (Pdyn), and mu-opioid receptor (Oprm1) in reward brain areas following frequent morphine treatment. Methods: Two groups of male Wistar rats were used. The groups received either saline (1 mL/kg) or morphine (10 mg/kg) twice daily for eight days. On day 8, rats were decapitated, brain areas involved in addiction were dissected, including the midbrain, striatum, prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, and hypothalamus, and gene expression was evaluated with real-time PCR. Results: Prolonged morphine treatment decreased Penk, Pdyn, and Oprm1 gene expressions in the midbrain but upregulated them in the striatum compared to the control group treated with saline. Significant increases in Pdyn and Oprm1 gene expressions were detected in the PFC, but there was no significant difference in Penk gene expression between the two groups. Besides, Pdyn gene expression was decreased in the hippocampus and hypothalamus; however, no significant differences in Penk and Oprm1 gene expressions were detected between the groups in these areas. Conclusions: The expression of endogenous opioid peptides and receptors after frequent use of morphine follows a region specificity in brain areas involved in addiction. These alterations may result in new physiological setpoints outside the normal range, which need to be considered when using morphine in medicine.

2022 ◽  
Yingping Cao ◽  
Yue Xu ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Heng Zhang ◽  
Chen Bai ◽  

Abstract CRISPR/Cas9 is a valuable tool and has been extensively employed to perform gene editing in plants. However, CRISPR/Cas9 has not been successfully used in spinach, an important leafy vegetable crop. Here, we precisely edited Spo23361 and Spo10340, two cellulose synthase-like D (CSLD) genes involved in root hair formation of spinach hairy roots, using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Four mutation types (i.e., replacement, insertion, deletion, and combined mutations) were observed, among which the deletion accounted for the vast majority (about 64.1%). Mutation rate differed largely among different targets. Seven homozygous/bi-allelic and eight heterozygous/chimeric mutated lines of Spo23361 were obtained from 15 independent transgenic hairy root lines. All of the seven homozygous/bi-allelic lines displayed bulking and short root hairs, which exhibited the characteristics of Arabidopsis csld2 mutants. Thirteen heterozygous/chimeric mutated lines, but no homozygous/bi-allelic lines, of Spo10340 were obtained from 15 independent transgenic hairy root lines, all of which showed similar phenotype of root hair with normal hairy roots. The transcriptomic analysis further revealed that multiple gene expressions for cell wall modulation and membrane trafficking were disturbed, which might result in the inhibition of root hair growth in Spo23361 mutants. Our results indicate that Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation using CRISPR/Cas9 is a simple and efficient genome editing tool in spinach. It lays a solid foundation for large-scale genome editing in spinach in future.

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