Alpha Amanitin
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (01) ◽  
pp. 07-12
Noor Talib

Despite the progress of diagnostic and therapy, the cancer burden is still rising worldwide. The new chemotherapeutical toxicity to somatic cells and its tolerance to tumor cells illustrates the immediate demand through recent pharmaceutical products with less harmful impacts. The use of natural anticancer products, like alpha-amanitin toxins have reached the cancer field therapy since the separation of Amanita phalloides fungi was performed. Application of Amanita phalloides affects tumor cell activity. It is thought that Amanita phalloides dilutions are recommended for a patient suffering from various cancer types and have no severe side effects resulting from amanita therapy. This review aims to explain the use of the therapeutic potential of -amanitin toxin against different cancer types.

Toxins ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 197
Doeun Kim ◽  
Sunjoo Kim ◽  
Ann-Yae Na ◽  
Chang Hwan Sohn ◽  
Sangkyu Lee ◽  

Alpha-amanitin (α-AMA) is a cyclic peptide and one of the most lethal mushroom amatoxins found in Amanita phalloides. α-AMA is known to cause hepatotoxicity through RNA polymerase II inhibition, which acts in RNA and DNA translocation. To investigate the toxic signature of α-AMA beyond known mechanisms, we used quantitative nanoflow liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis coupled with tandem mass tag labeling to examine proteome dynamics in Huh-7 human hepatoma cells treated with toxic concentrations of α-AMA. Among the 1828 proteins identified, we quantified 1563 proteins, which revealed that four subunits in the T-complex protein 1-ring complex protein decreased depending on the α-AMA concentration. We conducted bioinformatics analyses of the quantified proteins to characterize the toxic signature of α-AMA in hepatoma cells. This is the first report of global changes in proteome abundance with variations in α-AMA concentration, and our findings suggest a novel molecular regulation mechanism for hepatotoxicity.

Zainul Ikhwan Ahmad Khusairi ◽  
Rizz Fazali ◽  
Chung WM ◽  
Azmir Anuar ◽  
Afendi Ghazali

Introduction: Since time immemorial, mushrooms have been used as a part of human diet, some of them are very well known for their nutritive and medicinal properties and some are known to cause poisoning to the human body. A number of post ingestion fatalities due to poisonous mushrooms has been reported worldwide. These poisonous mushrooms are often misidentified as edible ones, which accounts for accidental poisoning.Objective: The main objective of this report was to describe the clinical manifestations of mushroom poisoning cases presented at the Emergency Department (ED), Taiping Hospital.Case Presentation: There were two cases presented, who suffered from moderate dehydration due to acute gastroenteritis after taking 'delicious mushrooms', also known as Chlorophyllum Molybdites. This study found that both cases had complaints of abdominal cramping, diarrhoea and vomiting more than twenty times a day. There was no history of numbness or weakness noted, and no chest pain or shortness of breath. On arrival, both cases presented signs of moderate dehydration with coated tongue and normal blood pressure, with slightly increased in temperature (37.30C). Abdomen was soft but discomfort upon palpation and described as bloated. Both cases were resuscitated with 20ml/kg normal saline. Charcoal, antiemetic, proton pump inhibitor and ceftriaxone antibiotic were given at the ED. Both survived and were treated as infectious acute gastroenteritis. Nausea and vomiting were the most common early symptoms of intoxication and should be considered as a medical emergency. Alpha Amanitin levels should be checked where possible if amanita poisoning is suspected. An early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome.Conclusion: All patients with the history of mushroom ingestion should be admitted. If laboratory detection of toxin is not available, history of mushroom ingestion, clinical manifestation and their trends could define mushroom poisoning.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue: 2021 Page: S17

Taishi TANABE ◽  
Yurina FUKUDA ◽  
Kazuhiko KAWASHIMA ◽  
Satomi YAMAMOTO ◽  
Takashige KASHIMOTO ◽  

2019 ◽  
Vol 39 (3) ◽  
pp. 328-337
MA Arici ◽  
A Sahin ◽  
Z Cavdar ◽  
BU Ergur ◽  
C Ural ◽  

Alpha-amanitin (α-AMA), the primary toxin of Amanita phalloides, is known to cause nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Resveratrol is an antioxidant that has shown efficacy in many nephrotoxicity models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol against the early and late stages of α-AMA-induced nephrotoxicity, compared to those of silibinin, a well-known antidote for poisoning by α-AMA-containing mushrooms. Mice kidney tissues were obtained from five groups: (1) α-AMA + NS (simultaneous administration of α-AMA and normal saline), (2) α-AMA + SR (simultaneous administration of α-AMA and resveratrol), (3) α-AMA + 12R (resveratrol administration 12 h after α-AMA administration), (4) α-AMA + 24R (resveratrol administration 24 h after α-AMA administration), and (5) α-AMA + Sil (simultaneous administration of α-AMA and silibinin). Histomorphological and biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate kidney damage and oxidant–antioxidant status in the kidney. Scores of renal histomorphological damage decreased significantly in the early resveratrol treatment groups (α-AMA + SR and α-AMA + 12R), compared to those in the α-AMA + NS group ( p < 0.05). Catalase levels increased significantly in the α-AMA + SR group, compared to those in the α-AMA + NS group ( p < 0.001). Early resveratrol administration within 12 h after α-AMA ingestion may reverse the effects of α-AMA-induced nephrotoxicity, partly through its antioxidant action, thereby suggesting its potential as a treatment for poisoning by α-AMA-containing mushrooms.

Toxicon ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 156 ◽  
pp. 34-40 ◽  
Mei Wang ◽  
Yu Chen ◽  
Zhen Guo ◽  
Changcheng Yang ◽  
Jiaomei Qi ◽  

2018 ◽  
Vol 122 (6) ◽  
pp. 633-642 ◽  
Aynur Sahin ◽  
Mualla Aylin Arici ◽  
Yeliz Yilmaz ◽  
Sule Kalkan ◽  
Nergiz Durmus ◽  

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