completely randomized design
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
J. Rubert ◽  
S. H. B. Dornelles ◽  
U. R. Nunes ◽  
N. T. Pedrollo ◽  
M. Peripolli ◽  

Abstract The low Brazilian productive index and the high demand have aroused interest in the cultivation of lentils, however the legume is little known and needs further studies. The objective of this study was to analyze and identify the effects of treatments with insecticides and fungicides on the physiological quality of lentil seeds, CA-1512 strain. The experiments were conducted in the seed laboratory in a completely randomized design with seven treatments and four replicates. Seed treatment with Thiophanate-methyl; Fluazinam® (180 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml) promoted higher levels of germination under accelerated aging, lower number of abnormal seedlings and longer lengths of shoot and radicle for the emergence in paper. Treatment with Carboxin; Thiram® (250 ml) + Imidacloprid® (150 ml) allowed a higher value in the first count of germination in sand, lower number of dead seeds under accelerated aging and longer root length, in the emergence in sand. Shoot length in the emergence in sand increased after seed treatment with Metalaxyl-M; Fludioxonil® (75 ml) + Pyraclostrobin; Thiophanate-methyl; Fipronil® (150 ml). Treatments with fungicides and insecticides considerably improved the physiological properties of the seeds, thus being able to guarantee greater phytosanitary qualities in the field, generating healthier seedlings and with protection against possible pests and diseases, and consequently guaranteeing greater productivity.

Daniel J. Dall’Orsoletta ◽  
Gilmar L. Mumbach ◽  
Fernando M. Brignoli ◽  
Luciano C. Gatiboni

ABSTRACT The elemental sulfur (S0) application may reduce soil pH, benefiting plants adapted to acid conditions and lessening problems of overliming. Nevertheless, there is no official recommendation for its application. The objective of the study was to quantify the S0 doses required to reduce the pH of soils from Southern Brazil. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory in a factorial scheme (5 × 5), with a completely randomized design and three replicates. The treatments consisted of five soils, and five doses of S0, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200% of the estimated dose need to reach pH 4.0. The applied doses of S0 resulted in reduction of pH and base saturation (V%) and increase of potential acidity (H + Al). These effects, however, were reduced due to the low rate of oxidation of the S0 applied (0.76-3.36%). The soil variables correlated with S0 oxidation were Mg2+ (0.86***), Al3+ (-0.82***), H + Al (-0.89***), V% (0.68***) and aluminum saturation (m%) (-0.87***). In the evaluated soils the oxidation of 50 kg ha-1 of S0 was required to reduce one unit of pH in H2O.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
F. E. P. Diógenes ◽  
S. R. C. Nascimento ◽  
C. Alves Junior ◽  
E. P. Paiva ◽  
S. B. Torres ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of atmospheric plasma application on the inactivation of fungi on the surface of Erythrina velutina seeds and on isolated fungal colonies. Two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design. First, plasma was applied to the surface of the seeds using helium gas and atmospheric plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min in addition to the control (untreated seeds), constituting seven treatments with five repetitions each. In the second experiment, Petri dishes containing the inoculum of different fungi were treated with atmospheric air plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min (Air-3, Air-6, and Air-9) and were compared with untreated fungi in Petri dishes without treatment (control), totaling four treatments and five repetitions each. We found that the application of atmospheric air plasma to E. velutina seeds for 9 min had an antimicrobial effect on the fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The formation of fungal colonies isolated from E. velutina seeds was also inhibited by 3 min of exposure to atmospheric air plasma, except for A. niger, whose inhibition occurred after 6 min of exposure to atmospheric plasma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 911-918
Edna Teles dos Santos ◽  
Flávio Ferreira da Silva ◽  
Fabrício Coelho Barbosa ◽  
Genilson Bezerra de Carvalho ◽  

The objective was to evaluate three sources of acid insoluble ash (AIA) (celite, kaolin, and sand), as indicators, to determine the apparent metabolizable energy of corn on a natural matter (AME) basis, dry matter digestibility coefficient (DMDC), and crude protein digestibility coefficient (CPDC) using total and partial excreta collection methods. Two hundred and ten Ross broiler chicks of 18 to 27 days of age were used. Broilers were adapted to experimental the diet for four days, and excreta were collected for 5 days. A reference diet (RD) based on corn and soybean meal was prepared to meet the nutritional requirements of the birds. A test diet was prepared with 40% replacement of RD with corn. The formulated diets were: D1, 99% Reference diet + 1% celite; D2, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% celite; D3, 99% Reference diet + 1% kaolin; D4, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% kaolin; D5, 99% Reference diet + 1% sand; D6, 59.4% RD + 39.6 % corn + 1% sand. The treatments were distributed in a completely randomized design, with six diets and five replicates of seven birds each in a 2x3 factorial arrangement. There were significant interactions for all variables investigated. It was observed that the AME and DMDC values of corn were similar in the two methods of collection, and PDC values using kaolin and celite makers were similar. However, the AME and CPDC of corn using sand with partial collection method were underestimated by 17.70 and 15.53%, respectively compared to those with the total collection method. The AME values of corn with the collection methods using celite and, the DMDC using celite and sand were significantly different. It was observed that the DMDC using celite and sand provided significantly lower values (4.67 and 5.15%), respectively, and the AME using celite was 2.86% lower than that obtained by total collection. To determine the EMA, DMDC, and CPDC in broilers, it is more efficient to use celiteTM and kaolin as markers with partial collection of excreta. Sand should not be used with partial excreta collection method, because it provides lower values of AME and CPDC compared to with total excreta collection method.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 599-610
Valéria Pereira Rodrigues ◽  
Dermeval Araújo Furtado ◽  
Neila Lidiany Ribeiro ◽  
Ladyanne Raia Rodrigues ◽  

The objective was to evaluate the increasing levels of magnesium in the water supplied to laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), kept in climatic chambers under thermoneutral temperature and thermal stress, on their performance and morphometry of their organs. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2x4 factorial arrangement, 2 temperatures (24 and 32 ºC) and 4 levels of magnesium in the water (50, 150, 250 and 350 mg L-1), with six replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability level. The magnesium levels in the water did not affect (P > 0.05) the production performance and morphometry of the organs, with less water consumption at the magnesium level of 150 mg L-1, and birds kept at 32 °C had a reduction in feed consumption and feed conversion, but without affecting organ morphometry. Japanese quails in the production phase can consume water with magnesium levels up to 350 mg L-1 without having their production performance and morphometry of organs affected and raised in an environment with temperatures of up to 32 °C.

Aérica C. Nazareno ◽  
Iran J. O. da Silva ◽  
Eduardo F. Delgado ◽  
Miguel Machado ◽  
Luiz O. Pradella

ABSTRACT The inclusion of environmental enrichment in conventional broiler rearing can increase mobility, bone mass and muscle. This research aimed to evaluate the use of environmental enrichment in the rearing of broilers at different ages and its influence on performance, morphometry, yield and weight of the parts. It was used the completely randomized design in split-plot scheme, being the plots the treatments presence (T1) and absence (T2) of environmental enrichment and the subplots the broiler ages (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days), with 56 chicks in each treatment (T1 and T2). Data obtained were analyzed by the linear effect model of fixed effects and compared by Tukey’s test of means. The animals were raised in a controlled environment, divided into four boxes with dimensions: 1.5 × 1.0 × 0.7 m, containing rice straw bed. In T1 a ladder with a perch on top was used, distributed every 1.5 m2. Environmental enrichment used did not influence broiler’s zootechnical performance. Broilers’ morphometric properties, parts weight and body weight increased due to environmental enrichment and, improvement was observed in chicks rearing’s final phase. The environmental enrichment was beneficial for muscle and bone mass gain in the main commercial parts of the chicken carcass, in addition to reducing the allometric coefficient of the breasts in chickens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. e06SC01-e06SC01
Natalia C. Aguiar ◽  

Aim of study: To evaluate the effects of increasing NaCl levels on the zootechnical performance of pacu fingerling. Area of study: The experiments were conducted at the Aquatic Organism Production and Reproduction Systems Laboratory belonging to the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), in the Palotina Sector, Paraná Estate, Brazil. Material and methods: Seven hundred and fifty fingerlings with an average weight of 3.41 ± 0.09 g were distributed in circular boxes, in a completely randomized design consisting of six treatments and five replications. Treatments comprised soybean- and maize-based diets containing increasing levels of NaCl (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25%). The experiments were conducted for 50 days. At the end of the experimental period the fish were fasted for 24 hours, anesthetized, weighed and measured to calculate zootechnical performances. Performance data were subjected to an analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test when significant differences were found between the means (p<0.05). Main results: The influence (p<0.05) of dietary NaCl levels on final weight, feed intake, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, average weight gain, clean trunk production, head carcass yield, headless carcass yield, feed intake and survival was assessed. The results indicate that non-salt treated fingerlings along with the 0.25% salt inclusion treatment led to better feed use, as evidenced by apparent feed conversions of 1.64 and 2.02, respectively. Research highlights: The inclusion of NaCl in pacu fingerling soybean and maize-based diets is not recommended.

Biocelebes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 157-166
Apri Salfiani ◽  
Asri Pirade Paserang

Provision of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) with traditional cultivation often has problems, including the availability of unhealthy seeds due to disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum. This disease can thwart vanilla plantations up to 85% because the pathogen can infect all parts of the vanilla plant making it difficult to control efforts. Alternative efforts were made to overcome this problem, namely through the initiation process in tissue culture by combining the hormones IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) and BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). This study aims to determine the effect and the maximum concentration of the combination of IAA and BAP on the initiation of vanilla plants. This study was conducted based on a completely randomized design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 3 repetitions. This treatment consisted of: A (MS + 0.1 ppm IAA + 1 ppm BAP), B (MS + 0.2 ppm IAA + 1 ppm BAP), C (MS + 0.3 ppm IAA + 1 ppm BAP), D (MS + 0.4 ppm IAA + 1 ppm BAP), and E (MS + 0.5 ppm IAA + 1 ppm BAP). Observations were made after 40 days from the planting process. The results showed that the concentration of the combination of IAA and BAP can affect the growth and organogenesis of the initiation of vanilla plants (Vanilla planifolia Andrews). Treatment C (MS + 0.3 ppm IAA + 1 ppm BAP) was the best concentration from this study, with average values: number of shoots (1), shoot length (1.73 cm), number of roots (1), and number of leaves (1.33).

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 73-90
Tiago Pereira Guimarães ◽  
Ubirajara Oliveira Bilego ◽  
Pedro Leonardo de Paula Rezende ◽  
Wescley Faccini Augusto ◽  

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of young bulls from three genetic groups, ½ Brangus x ½ Nellore (BRN), Nellore (NEL) and ½ Canchim x ½ Nellore (CAN), reared on pasture and supplemented with mineral (MS) or energy-mineral (MES) supplement. Eighty-one bulls, with a mean age of 12 months and mean body weight of 252 ± 33 kg were used. The experiment was conducted in a 3x2 factorial completely randomized design. Each genetic group was subdivided into six experimental plots, three received MS and three received MES. Animals were managed in a rotational stocking system in a Tifton 85 grass pasture. The consumption of MS was similar between the genetic groups with an average of 0.073 kg animal-1 day-1, whereas the consumption of MES was higher for BRN, 2.10 kg animal-1 day-1, followed by CAN, with 1.57 kg animal-1 day-1, and lower for NEL, with 1.28 kg animal-1 day-1. The average daily weight gain (ADG) was greater for animals that received MES compared to those that were given MS. For animals that received MS, the BRN group had ADG of 0.64 kg animal-1, while the NEL and CAN groups were similar with a mean of 0.46 kg animal-1. For animals that received MES, the CAN group had higher ADG, 0.97 kg animal-1, while the NEL and BRN groups were similar, with an average of 0.86 kg animal-1. Blood levels of total protein, albumin, creatinine, glucose and cholesterol did not change depending on the types of supplements used or between genetic groups. Higher serum urea levels were observed in NEL and CAN animals that received MS. Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels were higher in BRN and CAN animals that received MES. Gains in rump height, height at the withers, body length, rump width and chest perimeter were greater in animals that received MES. Mostly, the gains in morphometric measurements were greater for crossbred animals than for the NEL group. The supply of mineral-energy supplement in Tifton 85 grass pasture during the rainy season is recommended only for Nellore and ½ Canchim x ½ Nellore young bulls. Crossbred young bulls show greater gains in morphometric measurements than Nellore young bulls during rearing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 351-366
Samuel Henrique Cunha ◽  
Amador Eduardo Lima ◽  
Alex Mendonça Carvalho ◽  
Rubens José Guimarães ◽  

Brazilian coffee production represents an important activity in the country’s agricultural sector and, for this reason, it requires innovative technologies for the production of seedlings, which is one of the most important inputs in crop implantation. Thus, plant cloning by cutting, mineral nutrition via modified hydroponics and the use of alternative substrates appear as technological innovations for seedling production. This study evaluated the production of clonal coffee seedlings in a modified hydroponic system in comparison to the conventional climate-controlled greenhouse system, using vermiculite and phenolic foam as alternative substrates. At the end of the experiment, the seedlings were analyzed for growth (height, stem diameter, number of total leaves, leaf area, root area, shoot and root dry matter) and physiological (chlorophyll content and stomatal conductance) characteristics. For the statistical analysis, a completely randomized design was used in a factorial scheme 2 (types of substrate) x 2 (cultivation systems) with six replications and ten plants per plot. The innovative modified hydroponic system leads to a greater growth of coffee seedlings produced by cuttings in tubes with vermiculite compared to those produced in conventional systems. The substrate phenolic foam can be used alternatively in the air-conditioned greenhouse system. However, in the modified hydroponic system, it is not indicated, as it causes total seedling mortality.

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