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2022 ◽  
Rupinder Kaur ◽  
Brittany A. Leigh ◽  
Isabella T. Ritchie ◽  
Seth R. Bordenstein

Inherited microorganisms can selfishly manipulate host reproduction to drive through populations. In Drosophila melanogaster, germline expression of the native prophage WO proteins CifA and CifB cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in which sperms fertilize uninfected embryos that suffer catastrophic mitotic defects and lethality; however in infected females, CifA rescues the embryonic lethality and thus imparts a fitness advantage to Wolbachia. Despite widespread relevance to sex determination, evolution, and vector control, the mechanisms underlying when and how CI impairs male reproduction remain unknown and a topic of debate. Here we use cytochemical, microscopic, and transgenic assays in D. melanogaster to demonstrate that CifA and CifB proteins of wMel localize to nuclear DNA throughout the process of spermatogenesis. Cif proteins cause abnormal histone retention in elongating spermatids and protamine deficiency in mature sperms of CI-causing males. Protamine-deficient sperms travel to the female reproductive tract together with Cif proteins. In female ovaries, CifA localizes to germ cell nuclei and overlaps with Wolbachia in the nurse cell cytoplasm and the oocyte, however Cifs are not present in late-stage oocytes and the embryo. Moreover, CI and rescue are contingent upon a newly annotated CifA bipartite nuclear localization sequence. Our results reveal a previously unrecognized phenomena in which prophage proteins invade animal gametic nuclei and modify the histone-protamine transition of spermatogenesis.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 430
Dirk Andreas Ridder ◽  
Lana Louisa Urbansky ◽  
Hagen Roland Witzel ◽  
Mario Schindeldecker ◽  
Arndt Weinmann ◽  

Although knowledge on inflammatory signaling pathways driving cancer initiation and progression has been increasing, molecular mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis are still far from being completely understood. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of the MAPKKK Tak1 in mice recapitulates important steps of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, including the occurrence of cell death, steatohepatitis, dysplastic nodules, and HCCs. However, overactivation of Tak1 in mice upon deletion of its deubiquitinase Cyld also results in steatohepatitis and HCC development. To investigate Tak1 and Cyld in human HCCs, we created a tissue microarray to analyze their expression by immunohistochemistry in a large and well-characterized cohort of 871 HCCs of 561 patients. In the human liver and HCC, Tak1 is predominantly present as its isoform Tak1A and predominantly localizes to cell nuclei. Tak1 is upregulated in diethylnitrosamine-induced mouse HCCs as well as in human HCCs independent of etiology and is further induced in distant metastases. A high nuclear Tak1 expression is associated with short survival and vascular invasion. When we overexpressed Tak1A in Huh7 cells, we observed increased tumor cell migration, whereas overexpression of full-length Tak1 had no significant effect. A combined score of low Cyld and high Tak1 expression was an independent prognostic marker in a multivariate Cox regression model.

Mengdi Zhang ◽  
Clayton Seitz ◽  
Garrick Chang ◽  
Fadil Iqbal ◽  
Hua Lin ◽  

2022 ◽  
Kenrick A Waite ◽  
Jeroen Roelofs

In yeast, proteasomes are enriched in cell nuclei where they execute important cellular functions. Nutrient-stress can change this localization indicating proteasomes respond to the cell's metabolic state. However, the signals that connect these processes remain poorly understood. Carbon starvation triggers a reversible translocation of proteasomes to cytosolic condensates known as proteasome storage granules (PSGs). Surprisingly, we observed strongly reduced PSG levels when cells had active cellular respiration prior to starvation. This suggests the mitochondrial activity of cells is a determining factor in the response of proteasomes to carbon starvation. Consistent with this, upon inhibition of mitochondrial function we observed proteasomes relocalize to granules. These links between proteasomes and metabolism involve specific signaling pathways, as we identified a MAP kinase cascade that is critical to the formation of proteasome granules after respiratory growth but not following glycolytic growth. Furthermore, the yeast homolog of AMP kinase, Snf1, is important for proteasome granule formation induced by mitochondrial inhibitors, while dispensable for granule formation following carbon starvation. We propose a model where mitochondrial activity promotes proteasome nuclear localization.

Peter Wagstaff ◽  
Pablo Minguez Gabina ◽  
Ricardo Mínguez ◽  
John C Roeske

Abstract A shallow neural network was trained to accurately calculate the microdosimetric parameters, <z1> and <z1 2> (the first and second moments of the single-event specific energy spectra, respectively) for use in alpha-particle microdosimetry calculations. The regression network of four inputs and two outputs was created in MATLAB and trained on a data set consisting of both previously published microdosimetric data and recent Monte Carlo simulations. The input data consisted of the alpha-particle energies (3.97–8.78 MeV), cell nuclei radii (2–10 µm), cell radii (2.5–20 µm), and eight different source-target configurations. These configurations included both single cells in suspension and cells in geometric clusters. The mean square error (MSE) was used to measure the performance of the network. The sizes of the hidden layers were chosen to minimize MSE without overfitting. The final neural network consisted of two hidden layers with 13 and 20 nodes, respectively, each with tangential sigmoid transfer functions, and was trained on 1932 data points. The overall training/validation resulted in a MSE = 3.71×10-7. A separate testing data set included input values that were not seen by the trained network. The final test on 892 separate data points resulted in a MSE = 2.80×10-7. The 95th percentile testing data errors were within ±1.4% for <z1> outputs and ±2.8% for <z1 2> outputs, respectively. Cell survival was also predicted using actual vs. neural network generated microdosimetric moments and showed overall agreement within ±3.5%. In summary, this trained neural network can accurately produce microdosimetric parameters used for the study of alpha-particle emitters. The network can be exported and shared for tests on independent data sets and new calculations.

2022 ◽  
Sevgi Onal ◽  
Maan M. Alkaisi ◽  
Volker Nock

Mechanical forces shape physiological structure and function within cell and tissue microenvironments, during which cells strive to restore their shape or develop an adaptive mechanism to maintain cell integrity depending on strength and type of the mechanical loading. While some cells are shown to experience permanent plastic deformation after a repetitive mechanical tensile loading and unloading, the impact of such repetitive compression on plastic deformation of cells is yet to be discovered. As such, the ability to apply cyclic compression is crucial for any experimental setup aimed at the study of mechanical compression taking place in cell and tissue microenvironments. Here, the capability of our microfluidic compression platform to aid in the observation of the sequential cyclic compression of live cell actin is illustrated using SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Live imaging of the actin cytoskeleton dynamics of the compressed cells was performed for the applied varying pressures in ascending order during cell compression. Additionally, recovery of the compressed cells was investigated by capturing actin cytoskeleton and nuclei profiles of the cells at zero time and 24 h-recovery after compression in end point assays. This was performed for a range of mild pressures within the physiological range. The extent of recovery of the compressed cells can give insights into the plasticity of the cancer cells by imaging cell membrane bulges and actin cytoskeleton and measuring the shape descriptors of cell nuclei. As demonstrated in this work, the developed platform can control the strength and duration of cyclic compression, while enabling the observation of morphological and cytoskeletal and nuclear changes in cells, thus providing a powerful new tool for the study of mechanobiological processes in cancer and cell biology.

2022 ◽  
Yohei Kono ◽  
Stephen A. Adam ◽  
Karen Reddy ◽  
Yixian Zheng ◽  
Ohad Medalia ◽  

In mammalian cell nuclei, the nuclear lamina (NL) underlies the nuclear envelope (NE) to maintain nuclear structure. The nuclear lamins, the major structural components of the NL, are involved in the protection against NE rupture induced by mechanical stress. However, the specific role of the lamins in repair of NE ruptures has not been fully determined. Our analyses using immunofluorescence and live-cell imaging revealed that lamin C but not the other lamin isoforms rapidly accumulated at sites of NE rupture induced by laser microirradiation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The immunoglobulin-like fold domain and the NLS were required for the recruitment from the nucleoplasm to the rupture sites with the Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF). The accumulation of nuclear BAF and cytoplasmic cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) at the rupture sites was in part dependent on lamin A/C. These results suggest that nucleoplasmic lamin C, BAF and cGAS concertedly accumulate at sites of NE rupture for repair.

2022 ◽  
Aliya A. Gaisina ◽  
Arif A. Mekhtiev ◽  
Afag N. Nurullayeva ◽  
Grigoriy M. Palatnikov ◽  
Elshan N. Shamilov

Abstract High levels of background γ-radiation exist in the suburbs of Baku, Azerbaijan. We examined the impact of radiation on erythrocyte nuclear pathologies, levels of cytochrome P-450, and serotonin-modulating anticonsolidation protein (SMAP) in the tissues of the hens from three settlements with different levels of background radiation. Higher levels of radiation resulted in increased nuclear pathologies, upregulation of tissue SMAP levels, and downregulation of cytochrome P-450.We also carried out controlled dosage studies on Wistar male rats which showed significant upregulation of heat shock proteins with molecular mass 70 kDa (HSP70) in the bone marrow 3 and 5 h later of SMAP intraperitoneal administration. Administration of SMAP to rats 3 h prior to γ-radiation exposure (8 Gy) provided significant protection to somatic cell nuclei. We conclude that SMAP can provide protection from the genotoxic effects of γ-radiation through upregulation of HSP70 or the transformation of chromatin into a condensed, more protective conformational state.

2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-36
I. B. Manukhin ◽  
G. .N. Minkina

As a criterion for precancerous changes in the stratified squamous epithelium of the cervix, its proliferative activity, studied using monoclonal antibodies PC-10 to the antigen of proliferating cell nuclei (PCNA), is considered. The results of the studies showed that patients with a low degree of squamous intraepithelial lesion are characterized by weak proliferative activity, and for patients with a high degree of lesion it is moderate and pronounced. An increase in proliferative activity is a prognostic factor that determines long-term persistence and the likely progression of the lesion.

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