mitochondrial activity
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Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 276
Mariam Rado ◽  
Brian Flepisi ◽  
David Fisher

Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly invasive brain tumour, characterized by its ability to secrete factors promoting its virulence. Brain endothelial cells (BECs) in the GBM environment are physiologically modulated. The present study investigated the modulatory effects of normoxically and hypoxically induced glioblastoma U-87 cell secretions on BECs. Methods: Conditioned media (CM) were derived by cultivating U-87 cells under hypoxic incubation (5% O2) and normoxic incubation (21% O2). Treated bEnd.3 cells were evaluated for mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), ATP production, transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), and endothelial tight-junction (ETJ) gene expression over 96 h. Results: The coculture of bEnd.3 cells with U-87 cells, or exposure to either hypoxic or normoxic U-87CM, was associated with low cellular viability. The ΔΨm in bEnd.3 cells was hyperpolarized after hypoxic U-87CM treatment (p < 0.0001). However, normoxic U-87CM did not affect the state of ΔΨm. BEC ATP levels were reduced after being cocultured with U-87 cells, or with hypoxic and normoxic CM (p < 0.05). Suppressed mitochondrial activity in bEnd.3 cells was associated with increased transendothelial permeability, while bEnd.3 cells significantly increased the gene expression levels of ETJs (p < 0.05) when treated with U-87CM. Conclusions: Hypoxic and normoxic glioblastoma paracrine factors differentially suppressed mitochondrial activity in BECs, increasing the BECs’ barrier permeability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Kirsten M. Wright ◽  
Janis McFerrin ◽  
Armando Alcázar Magaña ◽  
Joanne Roberts ◽  
Maya Caruso ◽  

Botanical products are frequently sold as dietary supplements and their use by the public is increasing in popularity. However, scientific evaluation of their medicinal benefits presents unique challenges due to their chemical complexity, inherent variability, and the involvement of multiple active components and biological targets. Translation away from preclinical models, and developing an optimized, reproducible botanical product for use in clinical trials, presents particular challenges for phytotherapeutic agents compared to single chemical entities. Common deficiencies noted in clinical trials of botanical products include limited characterization of the product tested, inadequate placebo control, and lack of rationale for the type of product tested, dose used, outcome measures or even the study population. Our group has focused on the botanical Centella asiatica due to its reputation for enhancing cognition in Eastern traditional medicine systems. Our preclinical studies on a Centella asiatica water extract (CAW) and its bioactive components strongly support its potential as a phytotherapeutic agent for cognitive decline in aging and Alzheimer's disease through influences on antioxidant response, mitochondrial activity, and synaptic density. Here we describe our robust, scientific approach toward developing a rational phytotherapeutic product based on Centella asiatica for human investigation, addressing multiple factors to optimize its valid clinical evaluation. Specific aspects covered include approaches to identifying an optimal dose range for clinical assessment, design and composition of a dosage form and matching placebo, sourcing appropriate botanical raw material for product manufacture (including the evaluation of active compounds and contaminants), and up-scaling of laboratory extraction methods to available current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) certified industrial facilities. We also address the process of obtaining regulatory approvals to proceed with clinical trials. Our study highlights the complexity of translational research on botanicals and the importance of identifying active compounds and developing sound analytical and bioanalytical methods for their determination in botanical materials and biological samples. Recent Phase I pharmacokinetic studies of our Centella asiatica product in humans (NCT03929250, NCT03937908) have highlighted additional challenges associated with designing botanical bioavailability studies, including specific dietary considerations that need to be considered.

2022 ◽  
Kenrick A Waite ◽  
Jeroen Roelofs

In yeast, proteasomes are enriched in cell nuclei where they execute important cellular functions. Nutrient-stress can change this localization indicating proteasomes respond to the cell's metabolic state. However, the signals that connect these processes remain poorly understood. Carbon starvation triggers a reversible translocation of proteasomes to cytosolic condensates known as proteasome storage granules (PSGs). Surprisingly, we observed strongly reduced PSG levels when cells had active cellular respiration prior to starvation. This suggests the mitochondrial activity of cells is a determining factor in the response of proteasomes to carbon starvation. Consistent with this, upon inhibition of mitochondrial function we observed proteasomes relocalize to granules. These links between proteasomes and metabolism involve specific signaling pathways, as we identified a MAP kinase cascade that is critical to the formation of proteasome granules after respiratory growth but not following glycolytic growth. Furthermore, the yeast homolog of AMP kinase, Snf1, is important for proteasome granule formation induced by mitochondrial inhibitors, while dispensable for granule formation following carbon starvation. We propose a model where mitochondrial activity promotes proteasome nuclear localization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Bruna Cristina Falavinha ◽  
María Julia Barisón ◽  
Carmen Lúcia Kuniyoshi Rebelatto ◽  
Bruna Hilzendeger Marcon ◽  
Alessandra de Melo Aguiar ◽  

Dysfunctions in adipose tissue cells are responsible for several obesity-related metabolic diseases. Understanding the process of adipocyte formation is thus fundamental for understanding these diseases. The adipocyte differentiation of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ADSCs) showed a reduction in the mRNA level of the interleukin 21 receptor (IL21R) during this process. Although the receptor has been associated with metabolic diseases, few studies have examined its function in stem cells. In this study, we used confocal immunofluorescence assays to determine that IL21R colocalizes with mitochondrial protein ATP5B, ALDH4A1, and the nucleus of human ADSCs. We demonstrated that silencing and overexpression of IL21R did not affect the cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity of ADSCs. However, IL21R silencing did reduce ADSC adipogenic capacity. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism involved between IL21R and the adipogenic differentiation process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 675
Kimberly K. Richardson ◽  
Wen Ling ◽  
Kimberly Krager ◽  
Qiang Fu ◽  
Stephanie D. Byrum ◽  

The damaging effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on bone mass are well-documented in mice and humans and are most likely due to increased osteoclast number and function. However, the mechanisms leading to inappropriate increases in osteoclastic bone resorption are only partially understood. Here, we show that exposure to multiple fractions of low-doses (10 fractions of 0.4 Gy total body irradiation [TBI]/week, i.e., fractionated exposure) and/or a single exposure to the same total dose of 4 Gy TBI causes a decrease in trabecular, but not cortical, bone mass in young adult male mice. This damaging effect was associated with highly activated bone resorption. Both osteoclast differentiation and maturation increased in cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice exposed to either fractionated or singular TBI. IR also increased the expression and enzymatic activity of mitochondrial deacetylase Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3)—an essential protein for osteoclast mitochondrial activity and bone resorption in the development of osteoporosis. Osteoclast progenitors lacking Sirt3 exposed to IR exhibited impaired resorptive activity. Taken together, targeting impairment of osteoclast mitochondrial activity could be a novel therapeutic strategy for IR-induced bone loss, and Sirt3 is likely a major mediator of this effect.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Ruixue Zhang ◽  
Hemeng Dong ◽  
Pengpeng Zhao ◽  
Chunmei Shang ◽  
Hang Qi ◽  

Abstract Background Semen cryopreservation has become an essential tool for conservation efforts of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); however, it is severely detrimental to sperm quality. Evidence has shown that antioxidants have the potential to reverse cryopreservation-induced damage in sperm. The purpose of this study was to screen effective antioxidants that could retain sperm quality during cryopreservation and to determine the optimal dose. Seven antioxidant groups, including resveratrol (RSV = 50 μM, RSV = 100 μM, RSV = 150 μM), lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP = 2 mg/mL, LBP = 4 mg/mL), laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP = 1 mg/mL) or combination (LBP = 2 mg/mL, LJP = 1 mg/mL and RSV = 100 μM) were assessed. Results RSV, LBP, LJP, or a combination of RSV, LBP, and LJP added to the freezing medium significantly improved sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial activity during the cryopreservation process. Furthermore, the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were also improved. The levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in semen were notably reduced. Hyaluronidase activity and acrosin activity were significantly increased in LBP-treated sperm. However, sperm total motility and DNA integrity were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusions RSV (50 μM) or LBP (2 mg/mL) are the best candidate antioxidants for inclusion in the freezing medium to improve the quality of giant panda spermatozoa during semen cryopreservation.

Maria Grazia Di Certo ◽  
Francesca Gabanella ◽  
Christian Barbato ◽  
Nicoletta Corbi ◽  
Marco Fiore ◽  

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic dictated new priorities in biomedicine research. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus. In this pilot study, we optimized our padlock assay to visualize genomic/subgenomic regions using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded placental samples obtained from a confirmed case of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized in trophoblastic cells. We also checked the presence of the virion by immunolocalization of its glycoprotein spike. In addition, we imaged mitochondria of placental villi keeping in mind that the mitochondrion has been suggested as a potential residence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Indeed, we observed a substantial overlapping of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and mitochondria in trophoblastic cells. This intriguing linkage correlated with an aberrant mitochondrial network. Overall, to our knowledge, this is the first study that provides the evidence of a co-localization of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and mitochondria in SARS-CoV-2 infected tissue. These findings also support the notion that SARS-CoV-2 infection could reprogram mitochondrial activity in highly specialized maternal/fetal interface.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 20
Milena Chraniuk ◽  
Mirosława Panasiuk ◽  
Lilit Hovhannisyan ◽  
Sabina Żołędowska ◽  
Dawid Nidzworski ◽  

Assessing the toxicity of new biomaterials dedicated to bone regeneration can be difficult. Many reports focus only on a single toxicity parameter, which may be insufficient for a detailed evaluation of the new material. Moreover, published data frequently do not include control cells exposed to the environment without composite or its extract. Here we present the results of two assays used in the toxicological assessment of materials’ extracts (the integrity of the cellular membrane and the mitochondrial activity/proliferation), and the influence of different types of controls used on the obtained results. Results obtained in the cellular membrane integrity assay showed a lack of toxic effects of all tested extracts, and no statistical differences between them were present. Control cells, cells incubated with chitosan extract or chitosan-bioglass extract were used as a reference in proliferation calculations to highlight the impact of controls used on the result of the experiment. The use of different baseline controls caused variability between obtained proliferation results, and influenced the outcome of statistical analysis. Our findings confirm the thesis that the type of control used in an experiment can change the final results, and it may affect the toxicological assessment of biomaterial.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 434
Michelina Catauro ◽  
Giovanni Dal Dal Poggetto ◽  
Severina Pacifico ◽  
Fernanda Andreola ◽  
Isabella Lancellotti ◽  

In this study, we compared the chemical-physical, antibacterial, and cytotoxicity properties of silico-aluminous and silicate materials for outdoor (green roof, planted walls) and indoor (urban farms, indoor microgreen gardens) cultivation purpose in a context of sustainable construction. Glasses and lightweight aggregates were tailored starting from waste, by-product, and post-consumer and bioproducts (packaging glass cullet, cattle bone flour ash, vegetable biomass ash, spent coffee ground, degreased from biomass of prepupae of Black Soldier Flies) mixed together with a national ferruginous red clay, quarry scrap pumice and, if necessary, with K2CO3 of reagent grade. The first type of material was obtained by melting at 1200 °C and the second one by powder sintering at 1000 °C. All specimens, subjected to antibacterial test, showed both low zone of inhibitions towards two Gram-negative and two Gram-positive bacterial strains. A cytotoxicity test on mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH-3T3 cell line directly exposed to the investigated materials was performed at three different exposure times (1 h, 3 h, and 6 h). Data acquired highlighted that the materials positively affected redox mitochondrial activity of the fibroblast cells. The concentrations of leachate heavy metals detected on selected materials in water at room temperature after 24 h were lower than the European law limit and an interesting release of P, K, and N nutrients was noted for those formulations designed for agronomic purposes. pH, falling on average within the 6.5–7.5 range, is optimal for most crops, and the specific conductivity <2 dS/m indicates no depression danger for crops. Both bulk density <1200 kg/m3 and porosity over 50% seem to ensure good performance of lightening, drainage, water reservation, and oxygenation of the roots.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (4) ◽  
pp. 741
Nuo Sun ◽  
Serra Ozgen ◽  
Judith Krigman ◽  
Ruohan Zhang

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