Purpose. Determine the biochemical composition of buckwheat as affected by varietal characteristics.
Methods. Humidity was determined by thermogravimetric method, protein content by the Kjeldahl method, carbohydrate content by sugar meter, ash content by burning in a muffle furnace, fat content by low-fat residue, vitamin content by liquid chromatography.
Results. The biochemical composition of buckwheat grain varied significantly depending on the variety. Studies have shown that at a moisture content of 11.0–12.6%, the content of fiber, organic acids, ash, mono- and disaccharides and fat was the lowest. Thus, their content over varieties was 0.5–2.5%, 1.7–2.4, 1.5–2.5, 1.6–2.5 and 2.0–3.2%, respectively. Of the 17 varieties of buckwheat, only 4 had a significantly lower protein content (13.2–14.0%) compared to the standard variety ‘Ukrainka’. In other varieties, this figure varied from 16.3 to 18.5% or more, that is by 9–23% compared to the control. Buckwheat had the highest starch content of 57.2–62.0% depending on the variety. It should be noted that no significant difference was found between tall and dwarf varieties. Thus, the protein content in grain obtained from dwarf varieties varied from 16.5 to 17.2% while in tall ones from 13.2 to 18.5%. The content of vitamins in grain also varied depending on the variety from which it was obtained. The content of vitamin K was the lowest, 0.005–0.007 mg/100 g, the content of vitamins B2, B1, B5 and B6 varied from 0.12 to 0.42 mg/100 g of grain. The content of vitamin E and B3 was higher, 3.00–6.56 mg/100 g of grain, depending on the variety. The highest content of B4 was 50.0–54.3 mg/100 g of grain. It should be noted that the share of vitamin K in the total amount was the lowest (0.01%), the share of vitamins B2, B1, B5 and B6 ranged between 0.2 and 0.7%, E and B3 between 6.1 and 10.3%, and vitamin B4 between 80.3 and 85.9%. According to the content of vitamins, the difference between buckwheat varieties has not been found. The level of vitamins provides a determination of the integral rate of the product. It was found that 100 g of buckwheat provides the adult body with vitamin K by 4–7%, B5 – by 6–9, B4 – by 10–11, B2 – by 11–24, B1 – by 11–36, B6 – by 12–23, E – by 27–44, B3 – by 21–44% depending on the variety.
Conclusions. As a result of research, it was found that the biochemical composition of grain varies significantly depending on the buckwheat variety. Buckwheat contains the most vitamins E (3.00–6.63 mg/100 g of cereal) and B4 (51.0–54.3 mg/100 g of cereal). It is determined that grain obtained from ‘Orlovskyi’, ‘Podilskyi’, ‘Yana’, ‘Sumchanka’, ‘Anisia’, ‘Krupnozelena’, ‘Skorostyhla 81’ and ‘Kvitnyk’ varieties have a high content of vitamins B2, B1, B6, E and B3 with an integrated rate of 16–44%. In addition, grain of these varieties contains 16.5–17.4% of protein.