titanium dioxide nanoparticles
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2022 ◽  
Vol 118 ◽  
pp. 46-56
Jie Tang ◽  
Yun Wang ◽  
Qiang Xue ◽  
Fei Liu ◽  
Kenneth C. Carroll ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 114398
Yasin Dumani ◽  
Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Mortazavian ◽  
Ali Izadi-Darbandi ◽  
Hossien Ramshini ◽  
Fatemeh Amini

2022 ◽  

<p>The nanocomposites of poly(o-chloroaniline) with titanium dioxide have been prepared via chemical oxidative polymerization technique using o-chloroaniline monomer and titanium dioxide nanoparticles for photocatalytic application. The different composites were prepared by varying the load percentage of titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in polyorthochloroaniline (POCA) matrix. The synthesized composite materials were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Rays diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The POCA/TiO2 nanocomposites were further applied to evaluate the photocatalytic degradation potential towards direct yellow 50 (DY50) dye in an aqueous medium under ultraviolet radiations.</p>

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 217
Giulia Mancardi ◽  
Matteo Alberghini ◽  
Neus Aguilera-Porta ◽  
Monica Calatayud ◽  
Pietro Asinari ◽  

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have risen concerns about their possible toxicity and the European Food Safety Authority recently banned the use of TiO2 nano-additive in food products. Following the intent of relating nanomaterials atomic structure with their toxicity without having to conduct large-scale experiments on living organisms, we investigate the aggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using a multi-scale technique: starting from ab initio Density Functional Theory to get an accurate determination of the energetics and electronic structure, we switch to classical Molecular Dynamics simulations to calculate the Potential of Mean Force for the connection of two identical nanoparticles in water; the fitting of the latter by a set of mathematical equations is the key for the upscale. Lastly, we perform Brownian Dynamics simulations where each nanoparticle is a spherical bead. This coarsening strategy allows studying the aggregation of a few thousand nanoparticles. Applying this novel procedure, we find three new molecular descriptors, namely, the aggregation free energy and two numerical parameters used to correct the observed deviation from the aggregation kinetics described by the Smoluchowski theory. Ultimately, molecular descriptors can be fed into QSAR models to predict the toxicity of a material knowing its physicochemical properties, enabling safe design strategies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 030157422110562
Santosh Rahul Tavva ◽  
Suresh Gorantla ◽  
Vizia Muddada ◽  
Tivanani V D Mahendra ◽  
Ramoji Rao Lenka ◽  

Objective To evaluate the quantity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles released into the artificial salivary medium from orthodontic composite impregnated with 1% weight/weight (w/w) and 5% w/w titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) used for bonding metal brackets, thereby eventually comprehending the permissible levels. Materials and Method Eighty freshly extracted teeth for orthodontic treatment were divided into 2 groups of 40 teeth each and were bonded with brackets containing 1% w/w and 5% w/w composite containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles and placed in an artificial salivary medium. Quantification of 1% w/w and 5% w/w composite containing titanium nanoparticles was done using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy for 4 timely periods 24 h, 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months. Results In the teeth that received 1% TiO2, the amount of titanium released was greatest in 2 months with no significant release at later intervals. In the second group that received 5%, there was a significant release of titanium at all intervals, with highest release at second month. On comparing the 2 concentrations at 4 different time intervals, the quantities were significantly greater in the 5% group at all time frames, thus implying a significant increase in titanium released with an increase in concentration from 1% to 5%. Conclusion Titanium release was higher in 5% w/w composite containing nanoparticles than 1% w/w composite containing nanoparticles, and 1% and 5% concentrations can be used safely and are within the permissible limits.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 19-34
Susan Alkurdi ◽  
Raed Al-Juboori ◽  
Jochen Bundschuh ◽  
Alla Marchuk

The reuse of waste materials for water treatment purposes is an important approach for promoting the circular economy and achieving effective environmental remediation. This study examined the use of bone char/titanium dioxide nanoparticles (BC/nTiO2) composite and UV for As(III) and As(V) removal from water. The composite was produced via two ways: addition of nTiO2 to bone char during and after pyrolysis. In comparison to the uncoated bone char pyrolyzed at 900 °C (BC900), nTiO2 deposition onto bone char led to a decrease in the specific surface area and pore volume from 69 to 38 m2/g and 0.23 to 0.16 cm3/g, respectively. However, the pore size slightly increased from 14 to 17 nm upon the addition of nTiO2. The composite prepared during pyrolysis (BC/nTiO2)P had better As removal than that prepared after pyrolysis with the aid of ultrasound (BC/nTiO2)US (57.3% vs. 24.8%). The composite (BC/nTiO2)P had higher arsenate oxidation than (BC/nTiO2)US by about 3.5 times. Arsenite oxidation and consequent adsorption with UV power of 4, 8 and 12 W was examined and benchmarked against the composite with visible light and BC alone. The highest UV power was found to be the most effective treatment with adsorption capacity of 281 µg/g followed by BC alone (196 µg/g). This suggests that the effect of surface area and pore volume loss due to nTiO2 deposition can only be compensated by applying a high level of UV power.

2022 ◽  
Vol 905 ◽  
pp. 288-293
Jun Chen ◽  
Chun Di Zhou

Numerous studies have shown titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) could present a risk or potential risk to humans and other living organisms in certain conditions via inhalation and skin contact. Dermal exposure has limited adverse effects and the possible risks for exogenous inhaled nanoparticles migrating to the brain through the olfactory nerve is still under research. To study the in vivo and in vitro neurotoxicity of brain tissue in rats induced by TiO2 NPs. For in vitro study, rat astrocytes were exposed to TiO2 NPs with three different diameters (10, 50 and 200 nm) at five concentrations levels. Cellular morphology and sulfur rhodamine B (SRB) were carried out to evaluate the viability of particle-treated cells after 72 hours exposure. For in vivo study, suspensions of test material above mentioned were injected into tracheas of Wistar rats at dose of 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg·kg-1 in three groups, respectively. After 72 hours of exposure, the concentration of TiO2 NPs in brain tissue and the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 in brain homogenate were measured, while the cell morphology induced by TiO2 NPs was observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs can significantly affect the growth and morphology of rat astrocytes and inhibit the proliferation of astrocytes, which was positively related to dose-effect and size-dependent response. Pathological observations indicated that TiO2 NPs could penetrate the blood-brain barrier, leading to blood-brain barrier damage in rats, brain tissue necrosis, mitochondrial swelling and apoptosis while the non-nanoscale TiO2 particles showed no significant toxicity in the central nervous system cells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Francesca Mancuso ◽  
Iva Arato ◽  
Alessandro Di Michele ◽  
Cinzia Antognelli ◽  
Luca Angelini ◽  

The increasing use of nanomaterials in a variety of industrial, commercial, medical products, and their environmental spreading has raised concerns regarding their potential toxicity on human health. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) represent one of the most commonly used nanoparticles. Emerging evidence suggested that exposure to TiO2 NPs induced reproductive toxicity in male animals. In this in vitro study, porcine prepubertal Sertoli cells (SCs) have undergone acute (24 h) and chronic (from 1 up to 3 weeks) exposures at both subtoxic (5 µg/ml) and toxic (100 µg/ml) doses of TiO2 NPs. After performing synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles, we focused on SCs morphological/ultrastructural analysis, apoptosis, and functionality (AMH, inhibin B), ROS production and oxidative DNA damage, gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, proinflammatory/immunomodulatory cytokines, and MAPK kinase signaling pathway. We found that 5 µg/ml TiO2 NPs did not induce substantial morphological changes overtime, but ultrastructural alterations appeared at the third week. Conversely, SCs exposed to 100 µg/ml TiO2 NPs throughout the whole experiment showed morphological and ultrastructural modifications. TiO2 NPs exposure, at each concentration, induced the activation of caspase-3 at the first and second week. AMH and inhibin B gene expression significantly decreased up to the third week at both concentrations of nanoparticles. The toxic dose of TiO2 NPs induced a marked increase of intracellular ROS and DNA damage at all exposure times. At both concentrations, the increased gene expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and HO-1 was observed whereas, at the toxic dose, a clear proinflammatory stress was evaluated along with the steady increase in the gene expression of IL-1α and IL-6. At both concentrations, an increased phosphorylation ratio of p-ERK1/2 was observed up to the second week followed by the increased phosphorylation ratio of p-NF-kB in the chronic exposure. Although in vitro, this pilot study highlights the adverse effects even of subtoxic dose of TiO2 NPs on porcine prepubertal SCs functionality and viability and, more importantly, set the basis for further in vivo studies, especially in chronic exposure at subtoxic dose of TiO2 NPs, a condition closer to the human exposure to this nanoagent.

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