mass fraction
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2022 ◽  
Yulia Shokina ◽  
Yulia Kuchina ◽  
Ksenya Savkina ◽  
Elena Novozhilova ◽  
Katya Tatcienko ◽  

The high content of iodine in dried algae has allowed it to be used as a physiologically functional food ingredient in the technology of fortified foods, which can help prevent iodine deficiency. The aim of this research was to develop a technology for food products enriched with iodine (Italian crispbreads), as well as fermented dairy products (thick and drinking yoghurts with various fruit fillings). The brown algae Laminaria saccharina, which originates from the islandFrøya (in Norway), was used to enrich the products with iodine. This algaewas grown on the farms of the company ”Energy Solutions AS” and was dried by various methods of low-temperature drying (heat pump at a temperature of minus 10 ∘C, drying in 1-3 layers; vacuum freeze drying with pre-storage at a temperature of minus 8 ∘C; and pre-freezing and storing at a temperature of minus 25 ∘C for 2-6 days). The chemical composition of the algae was studied. The findings showed that the modes of pretreatment of algae and the method of cold drying did not influence the following indicators (in % of the total mass of dried algae): the mass fraction of water (6.00±0.50% to 6.93±0.50%),ash (46.40-50.14%), andsodium chloride (31.00±1.75%). The above technological factors substantially affected the content of protein and iodine in the dried algae. Thus, the mass fraction of protein varied from 5.88% to 12.35% per total mass, and iodine varied from 0.367% to 0.522% in terms of dry matter. The optimal dosage of dried algae for adding to raw material was calculated (which provided anabove-stated iodine content of % of the recommended level of adequate consumption in 100g of the developed products): from 66% in crispbreads to 88% in fermented dairy products. All new products provided a high level of organoleptic evaluation. Keywords: brown algae, Laminaria saccharina, iodine, functionalproduct, crispbreads, drinking yoghurts, thick yoghurts

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 550
Guohai Jia ◽  
Guoshuai Tian ◽  
Daming Zhang

Taking a plateau high-pressure common-rail diesel engine as the research model, a model was established and simulated by AVL FIRE according to the structural parameters of a diesel engine. The combustion and emission characteristics of D, B20, and B50 diesel engines were simulated in the plateau atmospheric environment at 0 m, 1000 m, and 2000 m. The calculation results show that as the altitude increased, the peak in-cylinder pressure and the cumulative heat release of diesel decreased with different blending ratios. When the altitude increased by 1000 m, the cumulative heat release was reduced by about 5%. Furthermore, the emission trend of NO, soot, and CO was to first increase and then decrease. As the altitude increased, the mass fraction of NO emission decreased. As the altitude increased, the mass fractions of soot and CO increased. Additionally, when the altitude was 0 m and 1000 m, the maximum temperature, the mass fraction of OH, and the fuel–air ratio of B20 were higher and more uniform. When the altitude was 2000 m, the maximum temperature, the mass fraction of OH, and the fuel–air ratio of B50 were higher and more uniform. Lastly, as the altitude increased, the maximum combustion temperature of D and B20 decreased, and combustion became more uneven. As the altitude increased, the maximum combustion temperature of B50 increased, and the combustion became more uniform. As the altitude increased, the fuel–air ratio and the mass fractions of OH and NO decreased. When the altitude increased, the soot concentration increased, and the distribution area was larger.

2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
Housseyn Smahi ◽  
Djilali Ameur ◽  
Joanna Dib ◽  
Isabelle Raspo

AbstractIn this paper, we present a numerical study along with an exhaustive adsorption investigation in a binary dilute mixture model nearby the solvent’s critical point in a configuration relevant for soil remediation. By means of this model, mass and heat transfer efficiency were qualitatively and quantitatively discussed through this work. The convergence of the solution was evaluated on the values of the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. The results reveal intense convection expanding into the cavity close to the critical point, thus enabling homogeneous adsorption of the solute. Moreover, the mass fraction perturbation isolines exhibit the existence, along the adsorbent plate, of a thin boundary layer which becomes thinner when approaching the critical point.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1420326X2110514
Zijun Li ◽  
Junjian Wang ◽  
Shuqi Zhao ◽  
Yu Xu

Hypoxia plays a major role in limiting the construction of the high-altitude mine. Understanding the effect and the distribution of diffused oxygen supply at different altitudes is the premise for the design of a mine with oxygen supply system and the full utilization of oxygen resources. For the optimal design of an oxygen supply mode and ventilation system, a multi-component fluid model of the diffused oxygen supply of a single-head tunnel was developed. This study reveals the variation law of the average oxygen mass fraction at different altitudes. The relationship between the distance from the heading face and the oxygen mass fraction at each altitude was fitted. The results show that the distribution of oxygen mass fraction in a single head tunnel at different altitudes presents a similar trend of increasing first and then decline. In addition, the change of the average oxygen mass fraction with the increase of altitude is not linear, and the dispersion loss is larger in high-altitude areas. The largest oxygen enrichment area is distributed at the altitudes of 4000–4500 m. This study provides theoretical support for improving the hypoxic environment of high-altitude metal mines excavation work.

2022 ◽  
pp. 42-45
Юлия Юрьевна Миллер ◽  
Татьяна Федоровна Киселева ◽  
Лариса Викторовна Пермякова ◽  
Юлия Владимировна Арышева

Определяющей целью солодоращения является повышение ферментативной активности зерна. Нами предлагается способ интенсификации солодоращения пшеницы посредством применения неорганического стимулятора роста «Энерген». В исследовании использовали пшеницу Алтайской селекции трех сортов: «Алтайская 100», «Дуэт» и «Алейская». Предложенный неорганический препарат вносили при замачивании в последнюю замочную воду в количестве 0,6 г/дм и выдерживали с ним в контакте пшеницу в течение 6 ч. За данный период в ферментативной системе обработанного зерна произошли более выраженные изменения в сравнении с контрольным вариантом (необработанным зерном). К концу замачивания уровень активности ферментов опытных образцов стал выше уровня аналогичных активностей ферментов контрольных вариантов на 11,8 и 9,9 % соответственно для амилолитической и протеолитической активностей. Последующее проращивание зерна повысило ферментативную активность пшеничного солода. По окончании 7 сут данной стадии прирост амилолитической активности над активностями необработанного зерна для разных сортов составил от 31,5 до 59,0 %, протеолитической - от 97,8 до 125,4 %. При этом отмечено маловыраженное отличие показателей амилолитической и протеолитической активностей проращиваемого обработанного пшеничного солода шестых и седьмых суток ращения, что позволяет сократить продолжительность данной стадии и всего производства солода на одни сутки. Готовый пшеничный солод отличался высокой ферментативной активностью (в диапазоне для трех сортов): амилолитическая - 344,9-360,8 ед./г, протеолитическая - 324,9-257,8 ед./г, более низкой в сравнении с контрольным вариантом продолжительностью осахаривания - от 18 до 20 мин. Кроме этого, предложенный способ солодоращения позволяет использовать пшеницу с высоким содержанием белка, как, например, сорт «Алейская» с массовой долей белка 14,6 %, поскольку в процессе проращивания под стимулирующим действием неорганического препарата «Энерген» процесс протеолиза протекает более интенсивно, и в конечном солоде содержание белка снижается до 10,4 %. The defining goal of malting is to increase the enzymatic activity of grain. We propose a method for intensifying the malting of wheat through the use of an inorganic growth stimulator «Energen». The study used wheat of the Altai selection of three varieties: «Altai 100», «Duet» and «Aleyskaya». The proposed inorganic preparation was introduced during soaking into the last soak water in an amount of 0.6 g/dm and wheat was kept in contact with it for 6 hours. During this period, more pronounced changes occurred in the enzymatic system of the processed grain in comparison with the control variant (unprocessed grain). By the end of soaking, the enzyme level of the experimental samples is 11.8 and 9.9 % higher than the level of similar enzymes of the control variants, respectively, for amylolytic and proteolytic activities. The subsequent germination of grain increased the enzymatic activity of wheat malt. At the end of seven days of this stage, the increase in amylolytic activity over the activities of unprocessed grain for different varieties ranged of 31.5 to 59.0 %, proteolytic - of 97.8 to 125.4 %. At the same time, there was a little pronounced difference in the indicators of amylolytic and proteolytic activities of the germinated processed wheat malt of the sixth and seventh days of fermentation, which makes it possible to shorten the duration of this stage and the entire malt production by one day. The finished wheat malt was characterized by high enzymatic activity (in the range for three varieties): amylolytic 344.9-360.8 units /g, proteolytic 324.9-257.8 units/g, lower duration of saccharification in comparison with the control variant of 18 to 20 minutes. In addition, the proposed method of malting allows the use of wheat with a high protein content, such as the Aleyskaya variety with a mass fraction of protein of 14.6 %, since during germination under the stimulating effect of the inorganic preparation Energen, the proteolysis process proceeds more intensively, and in the final malt the protein content decreases to 10.4 %.

2022 ◽  
Valentina Pavlova ◽  
Irina Saenkova ◽  
Yulia Shokina ◽  
Grigoriy Shokin

In this article, the results of the development of the functional fish culinary product “Thorny Skate and Cod Pie” are presented. A traditional recipe was used for making the yeast dough for the pie. The pie filling recipe was designed using Fuzzy Logic in the Matlab software package.Optimized parametersfor the selected sensory evaluation of the pie were calculated. On the basis of a priori information, key components of the filling (including the fraction of the fish components and skate meat) were chosen as the factors of interest. According to the simulation results, the optimal values werea 50/50 percentage for the first and the second factor respectively, and this providedthe maximum organoleptic assessment (five points on a five-point scale). The simulation results were compared with the results of the organoleptic evaluation of the pie made according to the optimized recipe, and their sufficient convergence was shown. The indicators of mass fraction of amine nitrogen and nitrogen of volatile bases was studied, as well as the microbiological safety indicators of flour fish culinary products, in accordance with the requirements of the Technical Regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union 040/2016 ”On the safety of fish products”. The results showed a high efficiency of the shock freezing of the semi-finished product, brought to semi-readiness, for long-term storage (120 days at a temperature no higher than minus 18 ∘C), without reducing the quality or safety of the pie. The product had a cholesterol content from 220 to 260 mg%, which allowed it to be classified as functional. The nutritional values of the product (mass fraction of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and amino acid composition) are presented. Keywords: thornyskate, functional product, pie with thornyskate and cod, shock freezing

2022 ◽  
Bogi Trickovic ◽  
Michael Lynch

Although various empirical studies have reported a positive correlation between the specific growth rate and cell size across bacteria, it is currently unclear what causes this relationship. We conjecture that such scaling occurs because smaller cells have a larger surface-to-volume ratio and thus have to allocate a greater fraction of the total resources to the production of the cell envelope, leaving fewer resources for other biosynthetic processes. To test this theory, we developed a coarse-grained model of bacterial physiology composed of the proteome that converts nutrients into biomass, with the cell envelope acting as a resource sink. Assuming resources are partitioned to maximize the growth rate, the model yields expected scalings. Namely, the growth rate and ribosomal mass fraction scale negatively, while the mass fraction of envelope-producing enzymes scales positively with surface-to-volume. These relationships are compatible with growth measurements and quantitative proteomics data reported in the literature.

E. V. Boyarshinova

   Currently, cottage cheese is one of the leading dairy products for infants’ nutrition. Today, the urgent task is to expand the range of sour-milk products by developing a technology for cottage cheese production with the addition of a fruit filler. The object of research is cottage cheese for the diet of children over six months. The cottage cheese is produced from whole milk subjected to high-temperature treatment with the use of starter microorganisms and with the addition of fruit filler “Banana”. The children’s curd recipe developed by the authors included the following raw materials and components: milk with the mass fraction of fat 3.4 %, skim milk with the mass fraction of fat 0.05 %, direct injection starter Flora C-170, fruit filler “Banana”. Production technology included the following stages: receiving and preparing raw materials, normalization of milk, homogenization, pasteurization and cooling of the normalized mixture, fermentation, ultrafiltration of curd clot, cooling and ripening of the product. The authors conducted laboratory studies of cottage cheese to assess the quality and safety of the resulting product. The products meet the requirements of GOST 32927-2014 for organoleptic indicators: taste and smell, appearance and consistency, colour. The products also meet the needs of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union (TR CU) 033/2013 “On safety of milk and dairy products” in terms of microbiological and antibiotic content.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Xi-Chun Zhong ◽  
Xu-Tao Dong ◽  
Jiao-Hong Huang ◽  
Cui-Lan Liu ◽  
Hu Zhang ◽  

A one-step sintering process was developed to produce magnetocaloric La(Fe,Si)13/Ce-Co composites. The effects of Ce2Co7 content and sintering time on the relevant phase transformations were determined. Following sintering at 1373 K/30 MPa for 1–6 h, the NaZn13-type (La,Ce)(Fe,Co,Si)13 phase formed, the mass fraction of α-Fe phase reduced and the CeFe7-type (La,Ce)(Fe,Co,Si)7 phase appeared. The mass fraction of the (La,Ce)(Fe,Co,Si)7 phase increased, and the α-Fe phase content decreased with increasing Ce2Co7 content. However, the mass fraction of the (La,Ce)(Fe,Co,Si)7 phase reduced with increasing sintering time. The EDS results showed a difference in concentration between Co and Ce at the interphase boundary between the 1:13 phase and the 1:7 phase, indicating that the diffusion mode of Ce is reaction diffusion, while that of Co is the usual vacancy mechanism. Interestingly, almost 100 % single phase (La,Ce)(Fe,Co,Si)13 was obtained by appropriate Ce2Co7 addition. After 6 h sintering at 1373 K, the Ce and Co content in the (La,Ce)(Fe,Co,Si)13 phase increased for larger Ce2Co7 content. Therefore, the Curie temperature increased from 212 K (binder-free sample) to 331 K (15 wt.% Ce2Co7 sample). The maximum magnetic entropy change (−∆SM)max decreased from 8.8 (binder-free sample) to 6.0 J/kg∙K (15 wt.% Ce2Co7 sample) under 5 T field. High values of compressive strength (σbc)max of up to 450 MPa and high thermal conductivity (λ) of up to 7.5 W/m∙K were obtained. A feasible route to produce high quality La(Fe,Si)13 based magnetocaloric composites with large MCE, good mechanical properties, attractive thermal conductivity and tunable TC by a one-step sintering process has been demonstrated.

Food systems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 239-245
A. V. Kozin ◽  
L. S. Abramova ◽  
E. S. Guseva ◽  
I. V. Derunets

In laboratory practice, there are many protein quantification methods, and all of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. The most common and widely used method for the protein analysis in food products, including fish, is the Kjeldahl method. However, the current standards for measurement methods for the determination of the protein content in fish food products do not provide for the use of devices that meet the modern level of technical development, and also do not contain metrological indicators that guarantee the reliability of the results obtained. The aim of the study was to substantiate the method for measuring the protein mass fraction in fish food products by the Kjeldahl method on an automatic analyzer and to establish metrological parameters. The assessment of the quality indicators of the Kjeldahl measuring method was carried out using a Kjeltec System 2300 Nitrogen Analyzer (Foss Analytical AB, Sweden) in the form of a characteristic of the measurement error and its components, which will provide results with the required accuracy.

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