solution combustion
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Emanuel Carlos ◽  
Rita Branquinho ◽  
Elina Jansson ◽  
Jaakko H Leppaniemi ◽  
José Menezes ◽  

Abstract Printed metal oxide devices have been widely desired in flexible electronic applications to allow direct integration on foils and to reduce electronic waste and associated costs. Especially, semiconductor devices made from non-critical raw materials, such as Zn, Sn (and not, for example, In), have gained much interest. Despite considerable progress in the field, the upscale requirements from lab to fab scale to produce these materials and devices remain a challenge. In this work, we report the importance of solution combustion synthesis (SCS) when compared with sol-gel in the production of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films using a solvent (1-methoxypropanol) that has lower environmental impact than the widely used and toxic 2-methoxyethanol. To assure the compatibility with low-cost flexible substrates in high-throughput printing techniques, a low annealing temperature of 140 ºC was achieved for these thin films by combining SCS and infrared (IR) annealing in a short processing time. These conditions allowed the transition from spin-coating (lab scale) to flexographic printing (fab scale) at a printing speed of 10 m/min in a roll-to-roll (R2R) pilot line. The ZTO (1:1 Zn:Sn-ratio) diodes show a rectification ratio of 103, a low operation voltage (≤ 3 V), promising reproducibility and low variability. The results provide the basis for further optimization (device size, encapsulation) to meet the requirements of diodes in flexible electronics applications such as passive-matrix addressing, energy harvesting and rectification.

Catalysts ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Siraprapa Pitiphattharabun ◽  
Nicha Sato ◽  
Gasidit Panomsuwan ◽  
Oratai Jongprateep

Although barium titanate (BaTiO3) shows prominent dielectric properties for fabricating electronic devices, its utilization in electrochemical applications is limited. Thus, this study examined the potential of a BaTiO3-based composite in the detection of a food additive, i.e., citric acid. First, a submicron-scale BaTiO3 powder was synthesized using the solution combustion method. Then, a BaTiO3/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite was hydrothermally synthesized at BaTiO3:MWCNT mass ratios of 1:1 and 2:1. This composite was used as a working electrode in a nonenzymatic sensor to evaluate its electrocatalytic activity. Cyclic voltammetric measurements revealed that the BaTiO3/MWCNT composite (2:1) exhibited the highest electrocatalytic activity. Reduction reactions were observed at applied voltages of approximately 0.02 and −0.67 V, whereas oxidation reactions were detected at −0.65 and 0.47 V. With acceptable sensitivity, decent selectivity, and fair stability, the BaTiO3/MWCNT composite (2:1) showed good potential for citric acid detection.

RSC Advances ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 1694-1703
Aymen S. Abu Hatab ◽  
Yahia H. Ahmad ◽  
Mohd B. Abdul Rahman ◽  
Siham Y. Al-Qaradawi

Ni-based mixed transition metal oxides (MTMO) (NixM1−xOy) were synthesized using the solution combustion synthesis (SCS), and investigated as electrocatalysts towards oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline medium.

Arzena Khatun ◽  
Shamim Sk ◽  
Sudhir Kumar Pandey

Abstract Transition metal oxides have been attracted much attention in thermoelectric community from the last few decades. In the present work, we have synthesized LaNiO3 by a simple solution combustion process. To analyze the crystal structure and structural parameters we have used Rietveld refinement method wherein FullProf software is employed. The room temperature x-ray diffraction indicates the rhombohedral structure with space group R 3 c (No. 167). The refined values of lattice parameters are a = b = c = 5.4071 Å. Temperature dependent Seebeck coefficient (S) of this compound has been investigated by using experimental and computational tools. The measurement of S is conducted in the temperature range 300-620 K. The measured values of S in the entire temperature range have negative sign that indicates n-type character of the compound. The value of S is found to be ∼ -8 µV/K at 300 K and at 620 K this value is ∼ -12 µV/K. The electronic structure calculation is carried out using DFT+U method due to having strong correlation in LaNiO3. The calculation predicts the metallic ground state of the compound. Temperature dependent S is calculated using BoltzTraP package and compared with experiment. The best matching between experimental and calculated values of S is observed when self-interaction correction is employed as double counting correction in spin-polarized DFT + U (= 1 eV) calculation. Based on the computational results maximum power factors are also calculated for p-type and n-type doping of this compound.

2021 ◽  
D. R. Lavanya ◽  
G. P. Darshan ◽  
J. Malleshappa ◽  
H. B. Premkumar ◽  
S. C. Sharma ◽  

Abstract Engineering of single material with multidirectional applications is of crucial for improving the productivity, low cost, flexibility and least power consumption, etc. To achieve these requirements, novel design structures and high performance materials are in urgent need. Lanthanide-doped nanophosphors have greatest strengths and ability in order to tuning its applications in various dimensions. However, nanophosphor applications in latent fingerprints visualization, anti-counterfeiting and luminescent gels/films are still in its infancy. This study demonstrated a simple strategy to enhance the luminescence of Tb3+ doped (1-11 mol %) La2Zr2O7 nanophosphors by conjugating the fluxes via simple solution combustion route. The photoluminescence spectra reveal intense peaks at ~ 491, 546, 587 and 622 nm arises from 5D4◊7FJ (J = 6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb3+ ions, respectively. The highest emission intensity was achieved in the NH4Cl flux assisted nanophosphor as compared to NaBr and NH4F. The colorimetric images of fingerprints visualized using optimized nanophosphor on forensic related surfaces exhibit level –III ridge details, including sweat pores, width of the ridges, bifurcation angle, successive distance between sweat pores, etc. These results are decisive parameters which clearly supports the statement “no two persons have ever been found to have the same fingerprints”. The anti-counterfeiting security ink was formulated using nanophosphor and designed various patterns by simple screen printing and dip pen technology. The encoded information was decrypted only under ultraviolet 254 nm light. All the designed patterns are not just what it looks/feels like and how it works. As a synergetic contribution of enhanced luminescence of the prepared nanophosphor, the fabricated green-emissive films display excellent flexibility, uniformity and transparency in the normal and ultraviolet 254 nm light illumination. Aforementioned results revealed that prepared NH4Cl flux assisted La2Zr2O7: Tb3+(7 mol %) NPs are considered to be best candidate for multi-dimensional applications.

Inorganics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 89
Vitalii Stadnik ◽  
Vasyl Hreb ◽  
Andriy Luchechko ◽  
Yaroslav Zhydachevskyy ◽  
Andrzej Suchocki ◽  

A series of strontium dialuminate SrAl4O7 nanopowders with the grossite-type structure doped with chromium and manganese ions were synthesized by the combined sol–gel solution combustion method with use of two different strontium salts. The Cr3+ and Mn4+ ions concentrations were varied from 0.05 to 5 at.%. Evolution of phase composition, crystal structure, and microstructural parameters of the nanocrystalline materials depending on the synthesis conditions, temperature of thermal treatment, and dopant content were investigated by the X-ray powder diffraction and the scanning electron microscopy techniques. Photoluminescent properties of SrAl4O7 nanophosphors activated with Cr3+ and Mn4+ ions were studied at room temperature. The samples exhibit typical photoluminescence in the deep-red spectral region, corresponding to d-d transitions in Cr3+ or Mn4+ ions. The intensity of this deep-red emission is dependent on the dopant concentration and annealing temperature. Features of the formation of octahedral surroundings around Cr3+ or Mn4+ ions are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 203-206
Yen Ngoc Nguyen ◽  
Hai Minh Le ◽  
Tu Anh Dao ◽  
Hung Ngoc Tran ◽  
Tue Ngoc Nguyen ◽  

Transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics were fabricated by pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) employing two-step sintering mode. First, nanoscale MgAl2O4 powders were produced by solution combustion synthesis from hydrated nitrate compounds and urea. Subsequently, the synthesized powders were sintered by PECS with a heating rate of 100oC/min under an applied pressure of 100 MPa. The sintering process was conducted according to two-step heating profile. At the first step, the temperature increased to 1050, 1100, and 1150oC, followed by a dwell time of 60 min. The second-step sintering was carried out at 1300, 1350, and 1400oC for 20 min. The transparent ceramics sintered at 1050oC/ 60 min – 1400oC/ 20 min exhibited transmittance over 80% in infrared range. In addition, transparent samples presented a Vickers hardness up to 30 GPa for sintering mode of 1150oC/ 60 min – 1400oC/ 20 min.

2021 ◽  
Sushobhita Chawla ◽  
Garima Aggarwal ◽  
Akash Kumar ◽  
Akhilender Jeet Singh ◽  
Dr. Balasubramaniam Kavaipatti

Lowering the synthesis temperature to obtain phase pure BaSnO3, which is the host material for high figure-of-merit (FOM) perovskite transparent conductors (TCs), can expand the horizons for its optoelectronic applications, with an obvious reduction in the thermal budget. In this work, we have developed a novel solution combustion technique for the synthesis of BaSnO3 nanoparticles. A peroxo/superoxo precursor to the nanoparticles is first synthesized by co-precipitation of the tin and barium salts via the H2O2 assisted or the `CSMC' route. The phase evolution, under different drying conditions of the wet precursor to crystalline BaSnO3 nanoparticles is then studied. We find that the crystallization temperature of BaSnO3 is significantly reduced by adding an organic solvent such as ethanol or propanol to the precursor; temperatures as low as 130 °C yield phase pure BaSnO3 nanoparticles. We establish that the organic solvent increases the reactive O2 ligand content, which plays a pivotal role in the synthesis. Due to this, an exothermic reaction occurs around 130 °C, thereby providing the heat of reaction for conversion of the precursor to phase-pure BaSnO3. Importantly, this method should also allow for the facile incorporation of dopants, paving the way for synthesis of high FOM TCs at low temperatures. Such low synthesis temperatures enable BaSnO3 to be used in devices having temperature limitations during device processing, such as heterojunction Si solar cells or perovskite-based solar cells in an n-i-p architecture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 20218407
Sofia M. Tikhanova ◽  
Lev A. Lebedev ◽  
Svetlana A. Kirillova ◽  
Maria V. Tomkovich ◽  
Vadim I. Popkov

Photo-Fenton-like oxidation of organic substances is one of the key advanced oxidation processes based on the reversible Fe2+↔Fe3+ transition and the generation of a strong oxidant ·OH in the presence of H2O2 and is currently considered as a promising method for the purification of polluted aqueous media. However, the absence of effective and stable photocatalysts of this process, operating under the action of visible light, necessitates the exploratory studies, mainly among iron oxides and ferrites of various compositions and structures. In this work, using the method of solution combustion followed by heat treatment in air the heterojunction nanocomposites based on ytterbium orthoferrite and cerium dioxide of the composition o-YbFeO3/h-YbFeO3/CeO2 (0–20 mol.%) with high absorption in the visible region and advanced photo-Fenton-like activity were obtained. The nanocomposites were studied by EDS, SEM, XRD, BET, and DRS methods. The photo-Fenton-like activity of the nanocomposites was investigated during the degradation of methyl violet under the action of visible (λmax = 410 nm) radiation. As a result, the formation of I-type heterojunction based on stable rhombic (55.4–79.0 nm) and metastable hexagonal (19.5–24.0 nm) modifications of ytterbium orthoferrite (o-YbFeO3 and h-YbFeO3, respectively) and cubic cerium dioxide CeO2 (13.2–19.2 nm) nanocrystals was established. It was shown that the obtained nanocomposites had foamy morphology and were characterized by a specific surface in the range of 9.1–25.0 m2/g, depending on the CeO2 content. It was found that nanocrystalline components were chemically and phase-pure, uniformly spatially distributed over the nanocomposite, and had multiple contacts with each other. Based on this fact and the established electronic structure of the nanocomposite components, the formation of I-type heterojunction with the participation of o-YbFeO3 (Eg = 2.15 eV), h-YbFeO3 (Eg = 2.08 eV), and CeO2 (Eg = 2.38 eV) was shown, the presence of which increased photocatalytic activity of the resulting nanocomposite. The optimal content of CeO2 in the nanocomposite was 5%, and the o-YbFeO3/h-YbFeO3/CeO2–5% sample was characterized by the highest rate constant of photo-Fenton-like degradation of methyl violet under the action of visible light equal to k = 0.138 min–1, which was 2.5 to 5 times higher than for nanocomposites based on ytterbium orthoferrite. The obtained results obtained indicate that the developed nanocomposites can be considered as a promising basis for the advanced oxidation processes for the purification of aqueous media from organic pollutants.

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