bodily integrity
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Briony Anderson ◽  
Mark A Wood

This article develops a framework for analysing the harms of doxxing: the practice of publishing personal identifying information about someone on the internet, usually with malicious intent. Doxxing is not just a breach of privacy, nor are its effects limited to first‑order harms to an individual’s bodily integrity. Rather, doxxing increases the spectre of second-order harms to an individual’s security interests. To better understand these harms—and the relationships between them—we draw together the theories of Bhaskar, Deleuze and Levi to develop two concepts: the virtualisation of violence and harm imbrication. The virtualisation of violence captures how, when concretised into structures, the potential for harm can be virtualised through language, writing and digitisation. We show that doxxed information virtualises violence through constituting harm-generating structures and we analyse how the virtual harm-generating potential of these structures is actualised through first- and second-order harms against a doxxing victim. The concept of harm imbrication, by contrast, helps us to analyse the often-imbricated and supervenient relationship between harms. In doing so, it helps us explain the emergent – and supervenient – relationship between doxxing’s first- and second-order harms.

2022 ◽  
Vanessa Burholt ◽  
E. Zoe Shoemark ◽  
R Maruthakutti ◽  
Aabha Chaudhary ◽  
Carol Ann Maddock

Abstract Background: In 2016, Tamil Nadu was the first state in India to develop a set of Minimum Standards for old age homes. The Minimum Standards stipulate that that residents’ dignity and privacy should be respected. However, the concept of dignity is undefined in the Minimum Standards. To date, there has been very little research within aged care facilities exploring the dignity of residents. This study draws on the concepts of (i) status dignity and (ii) central human functional capabilities, to explore whether long term care facilities uphold the dignity of residents. Objectives: The study was designed to obtain insights into human rights issues and experiences of residents, and the article addresses the research question, “to what extent do old age homes in Tamil Nadu support the central human functional capabilities of life, bodily health, bodily integrity and play, and secure dignity for older residents?”Method: A cross-sectional qualitative exploratory study design was utilised. Between January and May 2018 face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semi-structured topic guide with 30 older residents and 11 staff from ten care homes located three southern districts in Tamil Nadu, India. Framework analysis of data was structured around four central human functional capabilities. Results. There was considerable variation in the extent to which the four central human functional capabilities life, bodily integrity, bodily health and play were met,. There was evidence that Articles 3, 13, 25 and 24 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights were contravened in both registered and unregistered facilities. Juxtaposing violations of human rights with good practice demonstrated that old age homes have the potential to protect the dignity of residents.Conclusion: The Government of India needs to strengthen care home policies to protect older residents. A new legislative framework is required to ensure that all old age homes are accountable to the State. Minimum Standards should include expectations for quality of care and dignity in care that meet the basic needs of residents and provide health care, personal support, and opportunities for leisure, and socializing. Standards should include staff-to-resident ratios and staff training requirements.

2022 ◽  

Frances Power Cobbe (b. 1822–d. 1904) was an Anglo-Irish journalist, religious writer, feminist activist, and leading antivivisectionist. She was among the best-known feminist writers and thinkers of her day. She was a prominent spokeswoman for the improvement of Victorian women’s educational and employment opportunities; a witty defender of so-called redundant women; an incisive critic of the Victorian idea of marriage; and a passionate advocate for women’s suffrage and right to bodily integrity. She published essays on these topics in prestigious periodicals and wrote over twenty books on Victorian women, science and medicine, and religious duty, as well as innumerable essays, pamphlets, and tracts for the antivivisection movement. She was a pioneering journalist who wrote the second-leader for the London Echo on the same wide variety of social and cultural topics that animated her highly regarded signed work in the periodical press. She founded two antivivisection societies, the Society for the Protection of Animals Liable to Vivisection (known as the Victoria Street Society) in 1875, and the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) in 1898. Both societies comprised nationally organized branches that undertook campaigning, demonstrated against institutions that licensed vivisection, and produced and distributed mass publications, many of them by Cobbe herself. She brought her considerable journalistic know-how to her extensive work as leader of these organizations, evident especially in the productivity she was able to sustain over decades of activism and her success at placing essays in leading periodicals. She was instrumental in the passage of the Cruelty to Animals Act (1876), which created a regulatory framework for the use of live animals in scientific research, which she came to see as facilitating abuse rather than protecting animals. She advocated for improved legal protections for laboratory animals until her death. She also wrote carefully to advance the Matrimonial Causes Act (1878), which created new mechanisms for granting child custody and maintenance orders to wives separated from violent husbands, and continued to advocate for women’s autonomy in marriage and as mothers. Based in London for much of her career, Cobbe moved to Wales with her life companion, Mary Lloyd, in 1884 after receiving a substantial legacy from an antivivisectionist supporter. There she continued to write and publish, primarily on her antivivisection causes. She is buried with Lloyd in a double grave at Llanelltydd, Wales, in Lloyd’s family churchyard. Cobbe’s journalism, particularly on domestic violence, was at the center of the scholarship that first brought her writing to the forefront of feminist knowledge in the 1990s. More recently, scholarly frameworks that have reshaped feminist history-making, a revitalized interest in the Victorian Woman Question, and compelling new explorations of LGBTQ identities and life experiences, as well as new approaches to the Victorian periodical and newspaper press, have reframed our understanding of her spirited style and compelling ideas. Scholarship on Cobbe in sexuality studies remains limited, perhaps owing to the scant archival sources. New explorations of LGBTQ2S identities and life experiences may well spur new research into Cobbe’s life and relationships. She is increasingly an integral part of informed understanding of 19th-century feminism, journalism, and reform. Vitally, too, Cobbe’s central role in the antivivisection movement, which had long given her a global popular prominence in animal welfare and rights history, has made her writing and activities of growing academic interest in the field of critical animal studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Ayşenur Sümer Coşkun

Abstract Background Separation from the family, prolonged hunger, inability to perceive the surgical procedure performed, and feeling pain are among the main reasons for agitation in young children. In operations like circumcision, in which all bodily integrity is disrupted and children cannot make sense of it and feel punished, this agitation increases. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of propofol and ketamine on the emergence agitation (EA) in children undergoing circumcision. Result When the patients were taken to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), no statistically significant difference was observed between propofol and ketamine groups in the Aono’s four-point scale at minute 0 (p = 0.073). In the 5th minute, it was higher in the ketamine group compared to the propofol group (p < 0.001). With Aono’s four-point scale, EA diagnosis is made in areas with 3 and 4 points. The average Aono’s four-point scale in the ketamine group at the 5th minute was 3.08 ± 1.02. Since the Modified Steward score was ≥ 6, the time taken was longer in the ketamine group compared to the propofol group (p < 0.001). Conclusion EA does not only occur in inhalational anesthetics, it is also seen with ketamine. In view of the fact that ketamine can cause EA in children, it should not be used alone in anesthesia. Propofol provides a safe anesthesia. Instead of inhalational anesthesia, where the type of surgery is suitable, anesthesia with propofol infusion should be applied. Further research is required to investigate EA.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 606-606
R Intrieri ◽  
Paige Goodwin

Abstract The Aging Semantic Differential (ASD; Rosencranz & McNevin, 1969) is one of the most widely used measures in the aging literature to measure attitudes rather than knowledge or beliefs about aging. Originally 32-items the ASD has been reduced through careful factor analysis to 20-items representing 4 factors representing: Instrumentality, Autonomy, Acceptability, and Integrity. Latent summary scores were created for each factor, with lower scores representing more positive attitude toward older adults. Despite its widespread use there are no published studies that examine the relationships between the four ASD factors and Positive and Negative affect. Positive and Negative affect are related to and represent the core aspects of Extraversion and Neuroticism. The prime objective of this study was to assess the relationships between Positive and Negative affect and the four ASD factors. The sample comprises 1189 undergraduate participants with a mean age of 22.02 (SD=6.27). The sample included 611 men and 578 women. Results showed the path model fitted the data well (CFI = 953, TLI = .944, RMSEA = 0.066, SRMR = 0.035). Positive affect was significantly related to Instrumentality, Acceptability, and Integrity (β= -0.073, (SE= 0.034); p=0.034; β= --0.141 (SE= 0.033), p=0.0001; β= -0.146 (SE= 0.032), p=0.0001). These results show that higher positive affect was related to more positive beliefs about Instrumentality, Acceptability, and Integrity. Negative affect was significantly related to Integrity (β= 0.079, (SE= 0.032); p=0.012) indicating that greater negative affect was related to more negative beliefs about bodily integrity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 295
Sevdai Morina ◽  
Endri Papajorgji

In life, it often happens that humans take different actions on different occasions to save man or his wealth. These actions can be taken when there is a need to protect the integrity of man and his wealth, both individual and social wealth. Man performs these actions morally and without any institutional obligation. Man does the action without consent in order to save one's life or another's wealth. There is a need for such an action, because everyone sometimes in certain cases needs mutual help. With these behaviors of people, it is seen that they do not take these actions out of legal obligation, but act and should act with the consciousness and conscience of the civilized man. People who do this are driven by the need for cooperation, humanity, existence at the expense of the other, namely society. A person performs this action by perpetrating the work of another without consent for any other person. Hence, they undertake some factual and legal action for the other, sacrificing something that can be the property value and their bodily integrity. Sometimes this action must be taken because there are actions that cannot be postponed, therefore someone should take an action in such situations even when uninvited. Consequently, the subject matter analyzed in this paper is the act of perpetration of the work of another without consent as a source of the right of obligations in the Republic of Kosovo.   Received: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 1 November 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021

Dunja Begović

AbstractMaternal–fetal surgery (MFS) encompasses a range of innovative procedures aiming to treat fetal illnesses and anomalies during pregnancy. Their development and gradual introduction into healthcare raise important ethical issues concerning respect for pregnant women’s bodily integrity and autonomy. This paper asks what kind of ethical framework should be employed to best regulate the practice of MFS without eroding the hard-won rights of pregnant women. I examine some existing models conceptualising the relationship between a pregnant woman and the fetus to determine what kind of framework is the most adequate for MFS, and conclude that an ecosystem or maternal–fetal dyad model is best suited for upholding women’s autonomy. However, I suggest that an appropriate framework needs to incorporate some notion of fetal patienthood, albeit a very limited one, in order to be consistent with the views of healthcare providers and their pregnant patients. I argue that such an ethical framework is both theoretically sound and fundamentally respectful of women’s autonomy, and is thus best suited to protect women from coercion or undue paternalism when deciding whether to undergo MFS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 26-35
Wid Daghustani ◽  
Alison MacKenzie

Saudi Arabia and Bahrain have both signed the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and have a number of acts and policies which support inclusive education for children with disabilities. However, achieving the goals of equitable education at all levels remains a challenge, especially for autistic children. This article reports on the experiences of mothers from Saudi Arabia and Bahrain in trying to find schools or autism centres for their autistic adolescent sons. The research is based on in‐depth interviews with 17 mothers, the majority of whom reported that educating their sons is challenging, and that the schools and centres are inadequate or expensive, with the result that a number of participants’ children had to stay at home to the detriment of the boys and their mothers’ wellbeing. The findings are interpreted using the capabilities approach, a normative, evaluative framework on questions of social justice and individual flourishing. A capability evaluation reveals that many mothers experience capability corrosion as a result of gender, cultural, and legal restrictions, as well as difficulties in accessing appropriate education, with respect to three central capabilities: bodily integrity, affiliation, and control over one’s environment.

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