load effect
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Structures ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 36 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Chao Zhao ◽  
Yi Zhou ◽  
Xingu Zhong ◽  
Gang Wang ◽  
Qunyu Yang ◽  

Kareem Ghazi Abdulhussein ◽  
Naseer Majeed Yasin ◽  
Ihsan Jabbar Hasan

In this paper, there are two contributions: The first contribution is to design a robust cascade P-PI controller to control the speed and position of the permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC). The second contribution is to use three methods to tuning the parameter values for this cascade controller by making a comparison between them to obtain the best results to ensure accurate tracking trajectory on the axis to reach the desired position. These methods are the classical method (CM) and it requires some assumptions, the genetic algorithm (GA), and the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). The simulation results show the system becomes unstable after applying the load when using the classical method because it assumes cancellation of the load effect. Also, an overshoot of about 3.763% is observed, and a deviation from the desired position of about 12.03 degrees is observed when using the GA algorithm, while no deviation or overshoot is observed when using the PSO algorithm. Therefore, the PSO algorithm has superiority as compared to the other two methods in improving the performance of the PMDC motor by extracting the best parameters for the cascade P-PI controller to reach the desired position at a regular speed.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136943322110509
Mohammed A Sakr ◽  
Ahmad G Saad ◽  
Tamer M El-korany

This paper presents a finite element (FE) study of beam-column joints subjected to cyclic loading. This study is primarily dependent on investigating the shear behavior of joints under the influence of different column axial load ratios. Wherefore, a total range of the column axial load ratios, whether in tension or compression has been considered. This paper proposes a two-dimensional (2D) FE model that considers material non-linearity. The proposed FE model was verified with experimental results from literature that tested varying column axial load ratios and different failure modes. The examination among experiential and numerical outcomes demonstrated that the FE model can reenact the conduct of beam-column joints and can catch the different failure modes with acceptable accuracy. A parametric study was established using the proposed FE model and strut-and-tie (ST) model of Pauletta to assess the Eurocode joint shear strength equations. For this purpose, four specimens were designed according to Eurocode recommendations while two other specimens were designed to satisfy all of the Eurocode recommendations except for the required joint confinement. An interaction diagram was introduced for each specimen to express the behavior under varying column axial load ratios. The results of the comparison between Eurocode, FE model, and ST model showed some differences in calculating the joint shear strength capacity, especially under column tension loads. Furthermore, this paper proposed new design equations based on Eurocode equations taking into account the column axial load effect. These proposed equations worked to increase the accuracy in calculating the joint shear strength capacity. Proposed equations were compared to the FE model results and other experimental results available in the literature. The comparison showed that the differences with the FE model decreased and that the proposed equations had better accuracy at different tension and compression loads than the Eurocode.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-14
Peng Gao ◽  
Liyang Xie

Generalized reliability models and failure rate models of mechanical systems are developed in this paper according to the system working mechanism, which take the design parameters as input. The models consider strength degradation and imperfect maintenance. Besides, the models take into account the failure correlation caused by homologous load effect and the maintenance correlation owing to group maintenance. Unlike traditional reliability models, the models do not rely on empirical assumptions when considering failure correlation and maintenance correlation and have clear physical meaning. Moreover, the correctness and effectiveness of the models are verified by Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, the influences of failure correlation and maintenance correlation on generalized reliability, the influences of failure correlation on maintenance correlation, and the influences of maintenance correlation on failure correlation are analyzed via numerical examples. The results show that failure correlation and maintenance correlation have great influences on generalized reliability, and the interaction between the two correlation shows obvious time-varying characteristics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 220 ◽  
pp. 104860
Pengfei Lin ◽  
Fei Ding ◽  
Gang Hu ◽  
Chao Li ◽  
Yiqing Xiao ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 174702182110688
Hasan Gunduz ◽  
Turan Gunduz ◽  
Arzu Ozkan Ceylan

According to the load theory of attention, an active cognitive control mechanism is needed to ensure that behavior is controlled by target-relevant information when distractors are also perceived. Although the active cognitive control mechanism consists of working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition components, predictions regarding the load effects of this mechanism were derived mostly from studies on working memory. We aimed to test whether these predictions are also valid for an inhibition component. The inhibitory load was manipulated physiologically by creating different bladder pressure and its effects on distractor interference were examined under low and high perceptual load conditions. Results indicated that the availability of inhibitory control resources was important for decreasing the interference of distractors in the low perceptual load condition and that the high perceptual load reduced the effects of distractors independently from the availability of inhibitory resources. Results were consistent with the predictions of load theory, and to the best of our knowledge, the study provided the first piece of evidence in terms of the load effect of inhibition component on distractor interference.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Lin Zhang ◽  
Xiaohui Wei

Crack closure model has been used in several applications on the prediction of fatigue crack growth life, with expression of crack opening stress often serving as milestones. A typical difficulty in calculating the crack opening stress is the phenomenon of crack closure caused by the compressive load effect. Compressive load effect, resulting in the change of residual stress status at the unloading stage and the decrease of crack opening stress, is a long-term challenge for predicting fatigue crack growth life. We propose the expression of crack opening stress to predict fatigue crack growth life based on the analysis of compact tensile specimen with elastoplastic element method. It combines the characteristics of material and load to deal with the phenomenon of crack closure and uses stress ratio and normalized maximum applied load variable to construct the expression of crack opening stress. In the study of tensile-compression fatigue crack growth experiments, the proposed expression is proved to improve, by comparative analysis, the predictive ability on the whole range of experiment data. The novel expression is accurate and simple. Consequently, it is conducive to calculate the crack opening stress under tension-compression load.

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