classical method
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Kareem Ghazi Abdulhussein ◽  
Naseer Majeed Yasin ◽  
Ihsan Jabbar Hasan

In this paper, there are two contributions: The first contribution is to design a robust cascade P-PI controller to control the speed and position of the permanent magnet DC motor (PMDC). The second contribution is to use three methods to tuning the parameter values for this cascade controller by making a comparison between them to obtain the best results to ensure accurate tracking trajectory on the axis to reach the desired position. These methods are the classical method (CM) and it requires some assumptions, the genetic algorithm (GA), and the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). The simulation results show the system becomes unstable after applying the load when using the classical method because it assumes cancellation of the load effect. Also, an overshoot of about 3.763% is observed, and a deviation from the desired position of about 12.03 degrees is observed when using the GA algorithm, while no deviation or overshoot is observed when using the PSO algorithm. Therefore, the PSO algorithm has superiority as compared to the other two methods in improving the performance of the PMDC motor by extracting the best parameters for the cascade P-PI controller to reach the desired position at a regular speed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Vera Belova ◽  
Anna Pavlova ◽  
Robert Afasizhev ◽  
Viktoriya Moskalenko ◽  
Margarita Korzhanova ◽  

AbstractHuman exome sequencing is a classical method used in most medical genetic applications. The leaders in the field are the manufacturers of enrichment kits based on hybridization of cRNA or cDNA biotinylated probes specific for a genomic region of interest. Recently, the platforms manufactured by the Chinese company MGI Tech have become widespread in Europe and Asia. The reliability and quality of the obtained data are already beyond any doubt. However, only a few kits compatible with these sequencers can be used for such specific tasks as exome sequencing. We developed our own solution for library pre-capture pooling and exome enrichment with Agilent probes. In this work, using a set of the standard benchmark samples from the Platinum Genome collection, we demonstrate that the qualitative and quantitative parameters of our protocol which we called “RSMU_exome” exceed those of the MGI Tech kit. Our protocol allows for identifying more SNV and indels, generates fewer PCR duplicates, enables pooling of more samples in a single enrichment procedure, and requires less raw data to obtain results comparable with the MGI Tech's protocol. The cost of our protocol is also lower than that of MGI Tech's solution.

2022 ◽  
Mikhail E. Semenov ◽  
Sergei V. Borzunov ◽  
Peter A. Meleshenko

Abstract One of the most important problems of nonlinear dynamics is related to the development of methods concerning the identification of the dynamical modes of the corresponding systems. The classical method is related to the calculation of the Lyapunov characteristic exponents ( LCEs ). Usually, to implement the classical algorithms for the LCEs calculation the smoothness of the right-hand sides of the corresponding equations is required. In this work, we propose a new algorithm for the LCEs computation in systems with strong nonlinearities (these nonlinearities can not be linearized ) including the hysteresis. This algorithm uses the values of the Jacobi matrix in the vicinity of singularities of the right-hand sides of the corresponding equations. The proposed modification of the algorithm is also can be used for systems containing such design hysteresis nonlinearity as the Preisach operator (thus, this modification can be used for all members of the hysteresis family). Moreover, the proposed algorithm can be successfully applied to the well-known chaotic systems with smooth nonlinearities . Examples of dynamical systems with hysteresis nonlinearities , such as the Lorentz system with hysteresis friction and the van der Pol oscillator with hysteresis block, are considered. These examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

V. V. Legkostup ◽  
V. E. Markevich

In this paper, a method for estimating the distance to the object guided along a hyperbola to a target using a bistatic hyperbolic navigation system on a plane is given. At the same time, to solve the guidance problem, the number of required navigation positions is reduced by one in comparison with the classical method of hyperbolic navigation. However, in the guidance algorithms, it is still required to estimate the distance of the targeted object from the center of the base, the methods of obtaining which are considered in the work.

G. H. M. Araújo ◽  
R. Arefidamghani ◽  
R. Behling ◽  
Y. Bello-Cruz ◽  
A. Iusem ◽  

AbstractThe circumcentered-reflection method (CRM) has been applied for solving convex feasibility problems. CRM iterates by computing a circumcenter upon a composition of reflections with respect to convex sets. Since reflections are based on exact projections, their computation might be costly. In this regard, we introduce the circumcentered approximate-reflection method (CARM), whose reflections rely on outer-approximate projections. The appeal of CARM is that, in rather general situations, the approximate projections we employ are available under low computational cost. We derive convergence of CARM and linear convergence under an error bound condition. We also present successful theoretical and numerical comparisons of CARM to the original CRM, to the classical method of alternating projections (MAP), and to a correspondent outer-approximate version of MAP, referred to as MAAP. Along with our results and numerical experiments, we present a couple of illustrative examples.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Marek Kopecký ◽  
Ladislav Kolář ◽  
Kristýna Perná ◽  
Radka Váchalová ◽  
Petr Mráz ◽  

The present study aims to test and evaluate the efficiency of a new modified method of organic matter evaluation. It allows the assessment of the quality and quantity of the primary soil organic matter and the stable organic fractions separately. The new method was tested in six soil samples of different localities in the Czech Republic. This method is based on observing reaction kinetics during the oxidation of soil organic matter and measuring the cation-exchange capacity of stable organic fractions. The results were compared with classical methods, which rely on the isolation of humic substances, determination of the content of humic acids and fulvic acids and their ratio CHA:CFA, quotient E4/6, and fractionation of soil organic matter according to resistance to oxidation. It turned out that the results of the new modified method are more sensitive in comparison with the results obtained by classical procedures. The linear regression demonstrated the dependence between the amounts of soil organic matter determined by the classical method compared with the modified method. Moreover, the new modified method was found to be faster and not demanding on laboratory equipment. The new method has been improved to be easily repeatable, and some shortcomings of the previous method were eliminated. Based on our results and other recent studies, the modified method may be recommended for the practical evaluation of soil organic matter conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1701-1713
Dmitry M. Borodulin

The paper aims to evaluate the quality indicators of the whiskey distillate during its maturation under the influence of microwave radiation based on the method of multiple regression analysis to determine the optimal technological parameters for its production. In the course of solving the problem of product import substitution, we tested the patented technology for producing strong alcoholic beverages at the stage of their aging, using oak chips with various degrees of heat treatment. One of the promising areas for intensifying the process of whiskey distillate maturation is applying “green technologies”, with microwave heating being one of them. Positive results were obtained for the effect of microwave radiation on the process of target component extraction from oak chips with a water-alcohol solution. The duration of this extraction process was reduced by more than 2 times, which confirmed its intensity in relation to the classical method. The obtained regression models proved adequate, since the mean relative error varied within 10%. The chromatographic analysis of the whiskey produced at the optimal technological parameters showed that all physical and chemical properties and product safety meet the requirements of the applicable regulations and standards.

Buildings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Jiarui Zhang ◽  
Yaoyang Zhu ◽  
Zhao Li ◽  
Jianwei Tu

Presently, most of the common placement methods of actuators are based on the structural response and system energy to select the optimal locations. In these methods, the contribution of controllability and the energy of seismic excitations to each mode of the structure are not considered, and a large number of cases need to be calculated. To solve this problem, the Clough–Penzien spectral model is combined with the Luenberger observable normal form of the system to calculate the energy of each state. The modal disturbance degree, considering modal energy and controllability, is defined by using the controllability gramian matrix and PBH system controllability index, and the modes are divided into the main disturbance modes (MDMs) and the secondary disturbance modes (SDMs). A novel optimal placement method of actuators based on modal controllability degree is proposed, which uses MDMs as the main control modes. The optimal placement of actuators and the vibration control simulation of a 20-story building model are carried out. The results show that the vibration reduction effect of the proposed placement method is significantly better than that of the method of uniformly distributed actuators (Uniform method) and the classical placement method of actuators based on the system controllability gramian matrix (Classical method).

Machines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 357
Cosmin Constantin Grigoras ◽  
Valentin Zichil ◽  
Bogdan Chirita ◽  
Vlad Andrei Ciubotariu

An industrial process is defined through its quality of parts and their production costs. Labour-intensive operations must be applied to produce high-quality components with inexpensive resources. Recent development in dedicated software allows the industrial sector to rely on more and more autonomous solutions to obtain an optimum ratio between part quality and cost. The stretch forming process is an operation that has a high degree of difficulty, due to the process parameters and the spring-back effect of materials. Our approach to solving several of the shortcomings of this process was to develop a self-adaptive algorithm with computer vision capabilities that adapts to the process in real-time. This experimental study highlights the results obtained using this method, as well as a comparison to a classical method for the stretch-forming process (SFP). The results have noted that the stretch-forming algorithm improves the process, while adapting its decisions with each step.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7628
Łukasz Domagalski

This paper deals with the linear natural vibrations analysis of beams where the geometric and material properties vary periodically along the beam axis. In contrast with homogeneous prismatic beams, the frequency spectra of such beams are irregular as there exist enlarged intervals between some adjacent frequencies. Presented here are two averaged models of beams based on the tolerance modelling approach. The assumptions of classical Euler–Bernoulli and Timoshenko–Ehrenfest beam theories are adopted as the foundations. The resulting mathematical models are systems of differential equations with constant, weight-averaged coefficients. This makes it possible to apply any classical method of solution suitable for homogeneous beams, such as Galerkin orthogonalization. Here, emphasis is placed on the comparison of natural frequencies neighbouring the frequency band-gaps that are obtained from these two theories. Two basic cases of material and geometric property distribution in a periodicity cell are studied, and the natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained for a simply supported beam. The results are supported by a comparison with the finite element method and partially exact solutions.

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