texture features
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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Luís Vinícius de Moura ◽  
Christian Mattjie ◽  
Caroline Machado Dartora ◽  
Rodrigo C. Barros ◽  
Ana Maria Marques da Silva

Both reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and chest X-rays are used for the diagnosis of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, COVID-19 pneumonia does not have a defined set of radiological findings. Our work aims to investigate radiomic features and classification models to differentiate chest X-ray images of COVID-19-based pneumonia and other types of lung patterns. The goal is to provide grounds for understanding the distinctive COVID-19 radiographic texture features using supervised ensemble machine learning methods based on trees through the interpretable Shapley Additive Explanations (SHAP) approach. We use 2,611 COVID-19 chest X-ray images and 2,611 non-COVID-19 chest X-rays. After segmenting the lung in three zones and laterally, a histogram normalization is applied, and radiomic features are extracted. SHAP recursive feature elimination with cross-validation is used to select features. Hyperparameter optimization of XGBoost and Random Forest ensemble tree models is applied using random search. The best classification model was XGBoost, with an accuracy of 0.82 and a sensitivity of 0.82. The explainable model showed the importance of the middle left and superior right lung zones in classifying COVID-19 pneumonia from other lung patterns.

Uro ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-29
Yuichiro Oishi ◽  
Takeya Kitta ◽  
Takahiro Osawa ◽  
Takashige Abe ◽  
Nobuo Shinohara ◽  

Prostate MRI scans for pre-biopsied patients are important. However, fewer radiologists are available for MRI diagnoses, which requires multi-sequential interpretations of multi-slice images. To reduce such a burden, artificial intelligence (AI)-based, computer-aided diagnosis is expected to be a critical technology. We present an AI-based method for pinpointing prostate cancer location and determining tumor morphology using multiparametric MRI. The study enrolled 15 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between April 2008 and August 2017 at our institution. We labeled the cancer area on the peripheral zone on MR images, comparing MRI with histopathological mapping of radical prostatectomy specimens. Likelihood maps were drawn, and tumors were divided into morphologically distinct regions using the superpixel method. Likelihood maps consisted of pixels, which utilize the cancer likelihood value computed from the T2-weighted, apparent diffusion coefficient, and diffusion-weighted MRI-based texture features. Cancer location was determined based on the likelihood maps. We evaluated the diagnostic performance by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve according to the Chi-square test. The area under the ROC curve was 0.985. Sensitivity and specificity for our approach were 0.875 and 0.961 (p < 0.01), respectively. Our AI-based procedures were successfully applied to automated prostate cancer localization and shape estimation using multiparametric MRI.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 195
Małgorzata Domino ◽  
Marta Borowska ◽  
Anna Trojakowska ◽  
Natalia Kozłowska ◽  
Łukasz Zdrojkowski ◽  

Appropriate matching of rider–horse sizes is becoming an increasingly important issue of riding horses’ care, as the human population becomes heavier. Recently, infrared thermography (IRT) was considered to be effective in differing the effect of 10.6% and 21.3% of the rider:horse bodyweight ratio, but not 10.1% and 15.3%. As IRT images contain many pixels reflecting the complexity of the body’s surface, the pixel relations were assessed by image texture analysis using histogram statistics (HS), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) approaches. The study aimed to determine differences in texture features of thermal images under the impact of 10–12%, >12 ≤15%, >15 <18% rider:horse bodyweight ratios, respectively. Twelve horses were ridden by each of six riders assigned to light (L), moderate (M), and heavy (H) groups. Thermal images were taken pre- and post-standard exercise and underwent conventional and texture analysis. Texture analysis required image decomposition into red, green, and blue components. Among 372 returned features, 95 HS features, 48 GLRLM features, and 96 GLCH features differed dependent on exercise; whereas 29 HS features, 16 GLRLM features, and 30 GLCH features differed dependent on bodyweight ratio. Contrary to conventional thermal features, the texture heterogeneity measures, InvDefMom, SumEntrp, Entropy, DifVarnc, and DifEntrp, expressed consistent measurable differences when the red component was considered.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Chie Tsuruta ◽  
Kenji Hirata ◽  
Kohsuke Kudo ◽  
Naoya Masumori ◽  
Masamitsu Hatakenaka

Abstract Background We investigated the correlation between texture features extracted from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps or diffusion-weighted images (DWIs), and grade group (GG) in the prostate peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ), and assessed reliability in repeated examinations. Methods Patients underwent 3-T pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before radical prostatectomy with repeated DWI using b-values of 0, 100, 1,000, and 1,500 s/mm2. Region of interest (ROI) for cancer was assigned to the first and second DWI acquisition separately. Texture features of ROIs were extracted from comma-separated values (CSV) data of ADC maps generated from several sets of two b-value combinations and DWIs, and correlation with GG, discrimination ability between GG of 1–2 versus 3–5, and data repeatability were evaluated in PZ and TZ. Results Forty-four patients with 49 prostate cancers met the eligibility criteria. In PZ, ADC 10% and 25% based on ADC map of two b-value combinations of 100 and 1,500 s/mm2 and 10% based on ADC map with b-value of 0 and 1,500 s/mm2 showed significant correlation with GG, acceptable discrimination ability, and good repeatability. In TZ, higher-order texture feature of busyness extracted from ADC map of 100 and 1,500 s/mm2, and high gray-level run emphasis, short-run high gray-level emphasis, and high gray-level zone emphasis from DWI with b-value of 100 s/mm2 demonstrated significant correlation, excellent discrimination ability, but moderate repeatability. Conclusions Some DWI-related features showed significant correlation with GG, acceptable to excellent discrimination ability, and moderate to good data repeatability in prostate cancer, and differed between PZ and TZ.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Ruizhe Wang ◽  
Wang Xiao

Since the traditional adaptive enhancement algorithm of high-resolution satellite images has the problems of poor enhancement effect and long enhancement time, an adaptive enhancement algorithm of high-resolution satellite images based on feature fusion is proposed. The noise removal and quality enhancement areas of high-resolution satellite images are determined by collecting a priori information. On this basis, the histogram is used to equalize the high-resolution satellite images, and the local texture features of the images are extracted in combination with the local variance theory. According to the extracted features, the illumination components are estimated by Gaussian low-pass filtering. The illumination components are fused to complete the adaptive enhancement of high-resolution satellite images. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a better adaptive enhancement effect, higher image definition, and shorter enhancement time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 331
Xuewei Zhang ◽  
Kefei Zhang ◽  
Yaqin Sun ◽  
Yindi Zhao ◽  
Huifu Zhuang ◽  

The leaf area index (LAI) is of great significance for crop growth monitoring. Recently, unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have experienced rapid development and can provide critical data support for crop LAI monitoring. This study investigates the effects of combining spectral and texture features extracted from UAS multispectral imagery on maize LAI estimation. Multispectral images and in situ maize LAI were collected from test sites in Tongshan, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The spectral and texture features of UAS multispectral remote sensing images are extracted using the vegetation indices (VIs) and the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), respectively. Normalized texture indices (NDTIs), ratio texture indices (RTIs), and difference texture indices (DTIs) are calculated using two GLCM-based textures to express the influence of two different texture features on LAI monitoring at the same time. The remote sensing features are prescreened through correlation analysis. Different data dimensionality reduction or feature selection methods, including stepwise selection (ST), principal component analysis (PCA), and ST combined with PCA (ST_PCA), are coupled with support vector regression (SVR), random forest (RF), and multiple linear regression (MLR) to build the maize LAI estimation models. The results reveal that ST_PCA coupled with SVR has better performance, in terms of the VIs + DTIs (R2 = 0.876, RMSE = 0.239) and VIs + NDTIs (R2 = 0.877, RMSE = 0.236). This study introduces the potential of different texture indices for maize LAI monitoring and demonstrates the promising solution of using ST_PCA to realize the combining of spectral and texture features for improving the estimation accuracy of maize LAI.

Informatics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Vidhya V ◽  
U. Raghavendra ◽  
Anjan Gudigar ◽  
Praneet Kasula ◽  
Yashas Chakole ◽  

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a devastating and life-threatening medical condition that can result in long-term physical and mental disabilities and even death. Early and accurate detection of Intracranial Hemorrhage (ICH) in TBI is crucial for analysis and treatment, as the condition can deteriorate significantly with time. Hence, a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective computer-aided approach that can initially capture the hematoma features is highly relevant for real-time clinical diagnostics. In this study, the Gray Level Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM), and Hu moments are used to generate the texture features. The best set of discriminating features are obtained using various meta-heuristic algorithms, and these optimal features are subjected to different classifiers. The synthetic samples are generated using ADASYN to compensate for the data imbalance. The proposed CAD system attained 95.74% accuracy, 96.93% sensitivity, and 94.67% specificity using statistical and GLRLM features along with KNN classifier. Thus, the developed automated system can enhance the accuracy of hematoma detection, aid clinicians in the fast interpretation of CT images, and streamline triage workflow.

Zengfang Shi ◽  
Meizhou Liu

The existing target detection and recognition technology has the problem of fuzzy features of moving vehicles, which leads to poor detection effect. A moving car detection and recognition technology based on artificial intelligence is designed. The point operation is adopted to enhance the high frequency information of the image, increase the image contrast, and delineate the video image tracking target. The motion vector similarity is used to predict the moving target area in the next frame of the image. The texture features of the moving car are extracted by artificial intelligence, and the center moment is calculated by the gray histogram distribution curve, the edge feature extraction algorithm is used to set the detection and recognition mode. Experimental results: under complex conditions, this design technology, compared with the other two kinds of moving vehicle detection and recognition technology, detected three more moving vehicles, which proved that the application prospect of the moving vehicle detection and recognition technology integrated with artificial intelligence is broader.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Yun Wang ◽  
Lu-Yao Ma ◽  
Xiao-Ping Yin ◽  
Bu-Lang Gao

Colorectal cancer is one common digestive malignancy, and the most common approach of blood metastasis of colorectal cancer is through the portal vein system to the liver. Early detection and treatment of liver metastasis is the key to improving the prognosis of the patients. Radiomics and radiogenomics use non-invasive methods to evaluate the biological properties of tumors by deeply mining the texture features of images and quantifying the heterogeneity of metastatic tumors. Radiomics and radiogenomics have been applied widely in the detection, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of colorectal cancer liver metastases. Based on the imaging features of the liver, this paper reviews the current application of radiomics and radiogenomics in the diagnosis, treatment, monitor of disease progression, and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 637
Filippo Crimì ◽  
Emilio Quaia ◽  
Giulio Cabrelle ◽  
Chiara Zanon ◽  
Alessia Pepe ◽  

Adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) are incidentally discovered adrenal neoplasms. Overt endocrine secretion (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and catecholamines) and malignancy (primary or metastatic disease) are assessed at baseline evaluation. Size, lipid content, and washout characterise benign AIs (respectively, <4 cm, <10 Hounsfield unit, and rapid release); nonetheless, 30% of adrenal lesions are not correctly indicated. Recently, image-based texture analysis from computed tomography (CT) may be useful to assess the behaviour of indeterminate adrenal lesions. We performed a systematic review to provide the state-of-the-art of texture analysis in patients with AI. We considered 9 papers (from 70 selected), with a median of 125 patients (range 20–356). Histological confirmation was the most used criteria to differentiate benign from the malignant adrenal mass. Unenhanced or contrast-enhanced data were available in all papers; TexRAD and PyRadiomics were the most used software. Four papers analysed the whole volume, and five considered a region of interest. Different texture features were reported, considering first- and second-order statistics. The pooled median area under the ROC curve in all studies was 0.85, depicting a high diagnostic accuracy, up to 93% in differentiating adrenal adenoma from adrenocortical carcinomas. Despite heterogeneous methodology, texture analysis is a promising diagnostic tool in the first assessment of patients with adrenal lesions.

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