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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 536
Pasquale Arpaia ◽  
Federica Crauso ◽  
Egidio De Benedetto ◽  
Luigi Duraccio ◽  
Giovanni Improta ◽  

This work addresses the design, development and implementation of a 4.0-based wearable soft transducer for patient-centered vitals telemonitoring. In particular, first, the soft transducer measures hypertension-related vitals (heart rate, oxygen saturation and systolic/diastolic pressure) and sends the data to a remote database (which can be easily consulted both by the patient and the physician). In addition to this, a dedicated deep learning algorithm, based on a Long-Short-Term-Memory Autoencoder, was designed, implemented and tested for providing an alert when the patient’s vitals exceed certain thresholds, which are automatically personalized for the specific patient. Furthermore, a mobile application (EcO2u) was developed to manage the entire data flow and facilitate the data fruition; this application also implements an innovative face-detection algorithm that ensures the identity of the patient. The robustness of the proposed soft transducer was validated experimentally on five individuals, who used the system for 30 days. The experimental results demonstrated an accuracy in anomaly detection greater than 93%, with a true positive rate of more than 94%.

Anna M. Zeitlberger ◽  
Marketa Sosnova ◽  
Michal Ziga ◽  
Oliver P. Gautschi ◽  
Luca Regli ◽  

Abstract Purpose The smartphone-based 6-min walking test (6WT) is an established digital outcome measure in patients undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD). In addition to the 6WTs primary outcome measure, the 6-min walking distance (6WD), the patient’s distance to first symptoms (DTFS) and time to first symptoms (TTFS) can be recorded. This is the first study to analyse the psychometric properties of the DTFS and TTFS. Methods Forty-nine consecutive patients (55 ± 15.8 years) completed the 6WT pre- and 6 weeks (W6) postoperative. DTFS and TTFS were assessed for reliability and content validity using disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures. The Zurich Claudication Questionnaire patient satisfaction subscale was used as external criterion for treatment success. Internal and external responsiveness for both measures at W6 was evaluated. Results There was a significant improvement in DTFS and TTFS from baseline to W6 (p < 0.001). Both measures demonstrated a good test–retest reliability (β = 0.86, 95% CI 0.81–0.90 and β = 0.83, 95% CI 0.76–0.87, both p < 0.001). The DTFS exceeded the 6WD capability to differentiate between satisfied (82%) and unsatisfied patients (18%) with an AUC of 0.75 (95% CI 0.53–0.98) vs. 0.70 (95% CI 0.52–0.90). The TTFS did not demonstrate meaningful discriminative abilities. Conclusion Change in DTFS can differentiate between satisfied and unsatisfied patients after spine surgery. Digital outcome measures on the 6WT metric provide spine surgeons and researchers with a mean to assess their patient’s functional disability and response to surgical treatment in DLD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Trine Bathen ◽  
Heidi Johansen ◽  
Hilde Strømme ◽  
Gry Velvin

Abstract Background Experienced fatigue is an under-recognized and under-researched feature in persons with many different rare diseases. A better overview of the characteristics of existing research on experienced fatigue in children and adults with rare diseases is needed. The purpose of this review was to map and describe characteristics of existing research on experienced fatigue in a selection of rare diseases in rare developmental defects or anomalies during embryogenesis and rare genetic diseases. Furthermore, to identify research gaps and point to research agendas. Methods We applied a scoping review methodology, and performed a systematic search in March 2020 in bibliographic databases. References were sorted and evaluated for inclusion using EndNote and Rayyan. Data were extracted on the main research questions concerning characteristics of research on experienced fatigue (definition and focus on fatigue, study populations, research questions investigated and methods used). Results This review included 215 articles on ten different rare developmental defects/anomalies during embryogenesis and 35 rare genetic diseases. Of the 215 articles, 82 had investigation of experienced fatigue as primary aim or outcome. Included were 9 secondary research articles (reviews) and 206 primary research articles. A minority of articles included children. There were large differences in the number of studies in different diseases. Only 29 of 215 articles gave a description of how they defined the concept of experienced fatigue. The most common research-question reported on was prevalence and/ -or associations to fatigue. The least common was diagnostics (development or validation of fatigue assessment methods for a specific patient group). A large variety of methods were used to investigate experienced fatigue, impeding comparisons both within and across diagnoses. Conclusion This scoping review on the characteristics of fatigue research in rare diseases found a large variety of research on experienced fatigue. However, the minority of studies had investigation of experienced fatigue as a primary aim. There was large variation in how experienced fatigue was defined and also in how it was measured, both within and across diagnoses. More research on experienced fatigue is needed, both in children and adults with rare diseases. This review offers a basis for further research.

2022 ◽  
Christopher Ryan King ◽  
Ayanna Shambe ◽  
Joanna Abraham

Objective: Situational awareness and anticipatory guidance for nurses receiving a patient after surgery are key to patient safety. Little work has defined the role of artificial intelligence (AI) to support these functions during nursing handoff communication or patient assessment. We used interviews and direct observations to better understand how AI could work in this context. Materials and Methods: 58 handoffs were observed of patients entering and leaving the post-anesthesia care unit at a single center. 11 nurses participated in semi-structured interviews. Mixed inductive-deductive thematic analysis extracted major themes and subthemes around roles for AI supporting postoperative nursing. Results: Four themes emerged from the interviews: (1) Nurse understanding of patient condition guides care decisions, (2) Handoffs are important to nurse situational awareness; problem focus and information transfer may be improved by AI, (3) AI may augment nurse care decision making and team communication, (4) User experience and information overload are likely barriers to using AI. Key subthemes included that AI-identified problems would be discussed at handoff and team communications, that AI-estimated elevated risks would trigger patient re-evaluation, and that AI-identified important data may be a valuable addition to nursing assessment. Discussion and Conclusion: Most research on postoperative handoff communication relies on structured checklists. Our results suggest that properly designed AI tools might facilitate postoperative handoff communication for nurses by identifying elevated risks faced by a specific patient, triggering discussion on those topics.

Pharmacy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Mary Elkomos ◽  
Raha Jahromi ◽  
Michael S. Kelly

Statins are lipid-lowing medications shown to reduce cardiovascular events and are recommended for specific patient populations at elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Despite the demonstrated efficacy of statins for reducing ASCVD risk, and guidance on which populations should receive statin therapy, a substantial portion of eligible patients are not prescribed statin therapy. Pharmacists have attempted to increase the number of eligible patients receiving appropriate statin therapy through a variety of interventions and across several clinical settings. In this article, we highlight multiple studies evaluating the effectiveness of pharmacist-led interventions to improve statin use. A total of seven studies were selected for this narrative review, demonstrating the effectiveness and barriers of different statin-initiation programs delivered by pharmacists to increase statin use in eligible patients. Among the interventions assessed, a combination of provider communicating and statin prescribing through collaborative drug therapy management (CDTM) appear to the be the most useful at increasing statin use. Pharmacists can significantly improve statin use rates among eligible patients through multiple intervention types and across different clinical settings. Further studies should evaluate continued statin adherence and clinical outcomes among patients served by pharmacists.

Shannon M. Sheppard ◽  
Melissa D. Stockbridge ◽  
Lynsey M. Keator ◽  
Laura L. Murray ◽  
Margaret Lehman Blake ◽  

Abstract Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to identify the presence and nature of relationships between specific forms of aprosodia (i.e., expressive and receptive emotional and linguistic prosodic deficits) and other cognitive-communication deficits and disorders in individuals with right hemisphere damage (RHD) due to stroke. Methods: One hundred and ninety articles from 1970 to February 2020 investigating receptive and expressive prosody in patients with relatively focal right hemisphere brain damage were identified via database searches. Results: Fourteen articles were identified that met inclusion criteria, passed quality reviews, and included sufficient information about prosody and potential co-occurring deficits. Twelve articles investigated receptive emotional aprosodia, and two articles investigated receptive linguistic aprosodia. Across the included studies, receptive emotional prosody was not systematically associated with hemispatial neglect, but did co-occur with deficits in emotional facial recognition, interpersonal interactions, or emotional semantics. Receptive linguistic processing was reported to co-occur with amusia and hemispatial neglect. No studies were found that investigated the co-occurrence of expressive emotional or linguistic prosodic deficits with other cognitive-communication impairments. Conclusions: This systematic review revealed significant gaps in the research literature regarding the co-occurrence of common right hemisphere disorders with prosodic deficits. More rigorous empirical inquiry is required to identify specific patient profiles based on clusters of deficits associated with right hemisphere stroke. Future research may determine whether the co-occurrences identified are due to shared cognitive-linguistic processes, and may inform the development of evidence-based assessment and treatment recommendations for individuals with cognitive-communication deficits subsequent to RHD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Deborah Elstein ◽  
Nadia Belmatoug ◽  
Patrick Deegan ◽  
Özlem Göker-Alpan ◽  
Derralynn A. Hughes ◽  

Abstract Background Disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are fundamental to understanding the impact on, and expectations of, patients with genetic disorders, and can facilitate constructive and educated conversations about treatments and outcomes. However, generic PROMs may fail to capture disease-specific concerns. Here we report the development and validation of a Gaucher disease (GD)-specific PROM for patients with type 1 Gaucher disease (GD1) a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, bruising, bone disease, and fatigue. Results and discussion The questionnaire was initially developed with input from 85 patients or parents of patients with GD1 or GD3 in Israel. Owing to few participating patients with GD3, content validity was assessed for patients with GD1 only. Content validity of the revised questionnaire was assessed in 33 patients in the US, France, and Israel according to US Food and Drug Administration standards, with input from a panel of six GD experts and one patient advocate representative. Concept elicitation interviews explored patient experience of symptoms and treatments, and a cognitive debriefing exercise explored patients’ understanding and relevance of instructions, items, response scales, and recall period. Two versions of the questionnaire were subsequently developed: a 24-item version for routine monitoring in clinical practice (rmGD1-PROM), and a 17-item version for use in clinical trials (ctGD1-PROM). Psychometric validation of the ctGD1-PROM was assessed in 46 adult patients with GD1 and re-administered two weeks later to examine test–retest reliability. Findings from the psychometric validation study revealed excellent internal consistency and strong evidence of convergent validity of the ctGD1-PROM based on correlations with the 36-item Short Form Health Survey. Most items were found to show moderate, good, or excellent test–retest reliability. Conclusions Development of the ctGD1-PROM represents an important step forward for researchers measuring the impact of GD and its respective treatment.

Immunotherapy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Roger H Kobayashi ◽  
Jiří Litzman ◽  
Syed Rizvi ◽  
Huub Kreuwel ◽  
Sonja Hoeller ◽  

Most primary immunodeficiency diseases, and select secondary immunodeficiency diseases, are treated with immunoglobulin (IG) therapy, administered intravenously or subcutaneously (SCIG). The first instance of IG replacement for primary immunodeficiency disease was a 16.5% formulation administered subcutaneously in 1952. While most SCIG products are now a 10 or 20% concentration, this review will focus on SCIG 16.5% products with a historical overview of development, including the early pioneers who initiated and refined IG replacement therapy, as well as key characteristics, manufacturing and clinical studies. In determining an appropriate IG regimen, one must consider specific patient needs, characteristics and preferences. There are advantages to SCIG, such as stable serum immunoglobulin G levels, high tolerability and the flexibility of self-administered home treatment.

2022 ◽  
Ana Janic ◽  
Ajoy Vincent ◽  
Jennifer Stinson ◽  
Helen Dimaras

PURPOSE: Retinoblastoma is an aggressive pediatric eye cancer. Patient-reported outcome measures reveal important insights into how patients perceive their own health. Currently, there is no widely used or validated measure for assessment of retinoblastoma outcomes. The purpose of this research was to uncover which treatment outcomes that retinoblastoma survivors and their parents value, to inform the development of a future measure. METHODS: This qualitative, cross-sectional study included retinoblastoma survivors age 6 years and older and parents of retinoblastoma survivors. Participants who did not demonstrate fluency in English were excluded. Study participants participated in semistructured interviews or focus groups, either in person at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, or through secure videoconference, between March 3, 2019, and January 25, 2020. Iterative rounds of opening coding, codebook development, and coresearcher analysis were used to identify key emergent themes and subthemes. RESULTS: Seventeen adults participated in six focus groups. Nine pediatric survivors participated in individual interviews. Four common themes emerged from all participant groups: (1) definition of treatment success, (2) enucleation—acceptance and challenges, (3) treatment outcomes to measure, and (4) need for outcome reporting. An additional, unique theme was identified in all pediatric discussions: worries and coping mechanisms. Treatment outcomes deemed valuable were related to the following domains: psychosocial outcomes, daily functioning, functional vision, retinoblastoma education, cosmetic outcomes, and secondary eye conditions. CONCLUSION: This study represents the first stage in the development of a retinoblastoma-specific patient-reported outcome measure. The findings reveal insight into what outcomes are valued by survivors after treatment and offer promise to improve outcomes assessment for retinoblastoma.

2021 ◽  
Ariann Nassel ◽  
Marta G Wilson-Barthes ◽  
Chanelle J. Howe ◽  
Sonia Napravnik ◽  
Michael J. Mugavero ◽  

Methods. This protocol demonstrates how to: (1) securely geocode patients’ residential addresses in a clinic setting and match geocoded addresses to census tracts using Geographic Information System software (Esri, Redlands, CA); (2) ascertain contextual variables of the risk environment from the American Community Survey and ArcGIS Business Analyst (Esri, Redlands, CA); (3) use geoidentifiers to link neighborhood risk data to census tracts containing geocoded addresses; and (4) assign randomly generated identifiers to census tracts and strip census tracts of their geoidentifiers to maintain patient confidentiality. Results. Completion of this protocol generates three neighborhood risk indices (i.e., a Neighborhood Disadvantage Index, a Murder Rate Index, and a Assault Rate Index) for patients’ coded census tract locations. Intended Usage. This protocol can be used by research personnel and clinic staff who do not have prior GIS experience to easily create objective indices of the neighborhood risk environment while upholding patient confidentiality. Future studies can adapt this protocol to fit their specific patient populations and analytic objectives.

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