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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Tabassum ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
M. Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan ◽  
B. Ahmad ◽  

Abstract Fish protein is serving as a source of nutrition for protein starving world. However, sustainable aquaculture products require inexpensive plant by-products due to finite sources of fish meal. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine nutrient utilization, growth performance and hematological indices of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) based diets. Fish were fed with six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets having MOLM as a substitute of fish meal (FM) at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% for the period of 90 days. Fingerlings having initial weight 6.35±0.04g were reared in triplicate tanks at the stocking density of 15 and hand fed at the rate of 5% of total biomass twice regularly. Chromic oxide inclusion level was 1% in diets. After analysis, maximum growth performance and improved digestibility of nutrients were found in fish fed with diet at 10% replacement level as compared to fish fed on control diet and other test diets. Additionally, it was found that the red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration of fish showed a significantly (p<0.05) inverse correlation with the increase in MOLM. In present research, it was concluded that MOLM has good potential to be used as a FM substitute in C. mrigala diet with maximum effect at 10% showing positive hematological indices.

2022 ◽  
Avtandil G. Amiranashvili ◽  
Ketevan R. Khazaradze ◽  
Nino D. Japaridze

The lockdown introduced in Georgia on November 28, 2020 contributed to positive trends in the spread of COVID-19 until February - the first half of March 2021. Then, in April-May 2021, the epidemiological situation worsened significantly, and from June to the end of December COVID - situation in Georgia was very difficult. In this work results of the next statistical analysis of the daily data associated with New Coronavirus COVID-19 infection of confirmed (C), recovered (R), deaths (D) and infection rate (I) cases of the population of Georgia in the period from September 01, 2021 to December 31, 2021 are presented. It also presents the results of the analysis of monthly forecasting of the values of C, D and I. As earlier, the information was regularly sent to the National Center for Disease Control & Public Health of Georgia and posted on the Facebook page The analysis of data is carried out with the use of the standard statistical analysis methods of random events and methods of mathematical statistics for the non-accidental time-series of observations. In particular, the following results were obtained. Georgia's ranking in the world for Covid-19 monthly mean values of infection and deaths cases in investigation period (per 1 million population) was determined. Among 157 countries with population ≥ 1 million inhabitants in October 2021 Georgia was in the 4 place on new infection cases, and in September - in the 1 place on death. Georgia took the best place in terms of confirmed cases of diseases (thirteenth) in December, and in mortality (fifth) - in October. A comparison between the daily mortality from Covid-19 in Georgia from September 01, 2021 to December 31, 2021with the average daily mortality rate in 2015-2019 shows, that the largest share value of D from mean death in 2015-2019 was 76.8 % (September 03, 2021), the smallest 18.7 % (November 10, 2021). As in previous work [9,10] the statistical analysis of the daily and decade data associated with coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic of confirmed, recovered, deaths cases and infection rate of the population of Georgia are carried out. Maximum daily values of investigation parameters are following: C = 6024 (November 3, 2021), R = 6017 (November 15, 2021), D = 86 (September 3, 2021), I = 12.04 % (November 24, 2021). Maximum mean decade values of investigation parameters are following: C = 4757 (1 Decade of November 2021), R = 4427 (3 Decade of November 2021), D = 76 (2 Decade of November 2021), I = 10.55 % (1 Decade of November 2021). It was found that as in spring and summer 2021 [9,10], from September to December 2021 the regression equations for the time variability of the daily values of C, R, D and I have the form of a tenth order polynomial. Mean values of speed of change of confirmed -V(C), recovered - V(R), deaths - V(D) and infection rate V(I) coronavirus-related cases in different decades of months for the indicated period of time were determined. Maximum mean decade values of investigation parameters are following: V(C) = +139 cases/day (1 Decade of October 2021), V(R) = +124 cases/day (3 Decade of October 2021), V(D) = +1.7 cases/day (3 Decade of October 2021), V(I) = + 0.20 %/ day (1 decades of October 2021). Cross-correlations analysis between confirmed COVID-19 cases with recovered and deaths cases shows, that from September 1, 2021 to November 30, 2021 the maximum effect of recovery is observed on 12 and 14 days after infection (CR=0.77 and 0.78 respectively), and deaths - after 7, 9, 11, 13 and 14 days (0.70≤CR≤0.72); from October 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021 - the maximum effect of recovery is observed on 14 days after infection (RC=0.71), and deaths - after 9 days (CR=0.43). In Georgia from September 1, 2021 to November 30, 2021 the duration of the impact of the delta variant of the coronavirus on people (recovery, mortality) could be up to 28 and 35 days respectively; from October 1, 2021 to December 31, 2021 - up to 21 and 29 days respectively. Comparison of daily real and calculated monthly predictions data of C, D and I in Georgia are carried out. It was found that in investigation period of time daily and mean monthly real values of C, D and I practically fall into the 67% - 99.99% confidence interval of these predicted values. Traditionally, the comparison of data about C and D in Georgia (GEO) with similar data in Armenia (ARM), Azerbaijan (AZE), Russia (RUS), Turkey (TUR) and in the World (WRL) is also carried out.

Pragya Saxena ◽  
Arunkumar Bongale ◽  
Satish Kumar ◽  
Priya Sachin Jadhav

Abstract The surface composites of aluminum alloys have a higher scope of applications encountering surface interactions in the aerospace, automobile, and other industries compared to the base aluminum alloys. The friction stir process (FSP) is recently the preferred method to prepare aluminum-based surface composites due to its capability to produce improved physical properties and refined microstructure at the surface. The study examines the Al6061 alloy-based surface composite fabricated by FSP for their wear behavior and microstructure. In this study, the Al6061 alloy-based hybrid surface composites are prepared with varying weight% of copper and graphite microparticles mixture as reinforcement by FSP with two tools having unique pin profiles, i.e., threaded cylindrical and plain cylindrical. These prepared composites are investigated for the dry sliding wear test on a pin-on-disc test set-up. The experiments are designed using the L9 orthogonal array and analyzed by the Taguchi approach to obtain the influence of disc speed, load, and reinforcement weight% on wear rate. The significant parameters influencing the wear rate of the samples tested are obtained using ANOVA. Later the effects of the friction stir process and the wear tests on the microstructure of the workpieces are investigated using FE-SEM/EDS tests. It is concluded that the decrease in wear rate with the rise in reinforcement weight% (Cu + graphite) from 2% to 6%. The load has the maximum effect on the wear rate for the samples prepared by threaded cylindrical FSP tool pin profile, while reinforcement weight% affects significantly the wear rate of the samples prepared by FSP with plain cylindrical pin profile tool.

2022 ◽  
Ji Zhou ◽  
Ruoyi Lei ◽  
Jianming Xu ◽  
Peng Li ◽  
Xiaofang Ye ◽  

Abstract BackgroundFine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 mm (PM2.5) has been reported to be an important risk factor for asthma. Our study was designed to evaluate the relationship between air PM2.5 and lung function among children with asthma in Shanghai, China. MethodsFrom 2016 to 2019, a total of 70 Chinese children aged 4 to 14 in Pudong, Shanghai were recruited for this panel study. Upon entry to the group, questionnaire was used to collect basic information, and the lung function covering forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were carried out for each child more than two times during follow-up. Meanwhile, the simultaneous daily air atmospheric pollutants and meteorological data were collected. The linear mixed effect (LME) model was used to assess the relationship between air pollutants and lung function adjusting other covariates like sex, age, season and so on. ResultsA significantly negative association was found between PM2.5 level and lung function in children with asthma. In the single-pollutant model, the largest effect of PM2.5 on lung function were found on lag 0-2, FVC and FEV1 decreased by 0.91% [95% confidence interval (CI): -1.75, -0.07] and 1.05% (95% CI: -2.09, 0.00) for every 10 mg/m3 increase of PM2.5. In the multi-pollution model (adjusted PM2.5+SO2+O3), the maximum effect of PM2.5 on FVC and FEV1 also appeared on lag 0-2, FVC and FEV1 decreased by 1.57% (95% CI: -2.69, -0.44) and 1.67% (95% CI: -3.05, -0.26) for every 10 mg/m3 increase of PM2.5, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, boys, children and hot season more were sensitive. ConclusionThe short-term exposure of ambient PM2.5 is a risk factor for the lung function of children with asthma, particularly in boys, preschoolers (<6 years old) and in the hot season.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1786-1792
S.N. Vityaz

Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, nickel, mercury, lead, copper, zinc and others are among the priority environmental pollutants. Determination of their content in its main subsystems is an obligatory component in environmental monitoring and certification of agricultural products. On the other hand, all metals are natural components of soil-forming rocks, and some metals are classified as biogenic microelements, and their absence provokes functional disorders in living organisms. This article describes the results of studying the phytoremediation potential of flowering plants in relation to copper ions under laboratory conditions. The following flowering plants were selected as test crops: tansy phacelia, white mustard, small-flowered marigolds and a mixture of cereal grasses consisting of red fescue, perennial ryegrass and bluegrass in a ratio of 40%, 50%, 10%, respectively. Within the experiment, copper ions in concentrations of 2 and 10 maximum permissible concentration (MPC) were introduced into the soil sampled from the territory of agricultural lands (leached medium-thick heavy loamy chernozem with a high level of humus, mobile phosphorus and exchangeable potassium and a low level of nitrate nitrogen, copper in gross and mobile forms). It was found that all plants selected as test crops are capable of accumulating copper ions from the soil to varying degrees, which makes it possible to use them in phytoremediation of agricultural lands planned for organic farming. The ability to accumulate copper ions increases in the following order: white mustard < small-flowered marigolds < tansy phacelia < mixture of cereal grasses. The maximum effect of soil phytoremediation was revealed in the variant with a mixture of cereal grasses. When they are grown, the content of copper ions in the soil with the introduction of 2 MPC decreases by 38.8%, with the introduction of 10 MPC the concentration decreases by 47.8%.

Serhii Kravchuk

Background. The directions and methods of training telecommunications personnel are constantly evolving in accordance with the growing volume of information exchange in society. Telecommunications as a display of the means and methods of information transmission have come a long way from purely radio engineering systems to heterogeneous systems with a complex network infrastructure and intelligent methods of information processing. Accordingly, the approaches to the training of telecommunications personnel are also changing. If in the early 80s preference in training was given to radio technologies, now it is network and software technologies. Objective. The purpose of this work is to present the possibilities of increasing the efficiency of the educational process in standard and mixed modes, structuring subjects in accordance with the requirements of the modern labor market. Methods. The unpredictable deep essence and uncertainty of the information space of the professions for which higher education prepares students today leads to a change in the teaching paradigm. Methods and structuring of building the learning process with obtaining the maximum effect of the student's readiness for their practical activities are investigated. Results. Possible ways of implementation of new requirements for personnel training for the new paradigm of the unified industry "Information Technologies and Telecom" are presented; the main directions of the formation of the general structure of training of telecommunications personnel on the example of the educational program "Engineering and programming of infocommunications"; recommendations for the organization of the educational process in full-time and remote modes. It is shown that with the correct organization of the educational process, blended learning can improve the quality of learning, especially in the context of reducing the hours of "classroom lessons" by transferring part of the educational process to the online environment. Conclusions. University graduates constitute the potential foundation of today's specialist market. Nevertheless, the problem of their professional adaptation, at the moment, remains relevant. Therefore, the paper proposes to solve this problem using the presented multilateral approach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Milan Cokić ◽  
Tobias Bruegmann ◽  
Philipp Sasse ◽  
Daniela Malan

G-protein signaling pathways are central in the regulation of cardiac function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Their functional analysis through optogenetic techniques with selective expression of opsin proteins and activation by specific wavelengths allows high spatial and temporal precision. Here, we present the application of long wavelength-sensitive cone opsin (LWO) in cardiomyocytes for activation of the Gi signaling pathway by red light. Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells expressing LWO were generated and differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes in embryoid bodies (EBs). Illumination with red light (625 nm) led to an instantaneous decrease up to complete inhibition (84–99% effectivity) of spontaneous beating, but had no effect on control EBs. By using increasing light intensities with 10 s pulses, we determined a half maximal effective light intensity of 2.4 μW/mm2 and a maximum effect at 100 μW/mm2. Pre-incubation of LWO EBs with pertussis toxin completely inhibited the light effect proving the specificity for Gi signaling. Frequency reduction was mainly due to the activation of GIRK channels because the specific channel blocker tertiapin reduced the light effect by ~80%. Compared with pharmacological stimulation of M2 receptors with carbachol with slow kinetics (&gt;30 s), illumination of LWO had an identical efficacy, but much faster kinetics (&lt;1 s) in the activation and deactivation demonstrating the temporal advantage of optogenetic stimulation. Thus, LWO is an effective optogenetic tool for selective stimulation of the Gi signaling cascade in cardiomyocytes with red light, providing high temporal precision.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 285-290
Lyudmila N. Komarova ◽  
Anzhelika A. Melnikova ◽  
Denis A. Baldov

Proton and carbon beam therapy is currently recognized as the most effective and highly accurate form of radiation therapy for deeply located tumors, including radioresistant ones. This is due to the fact that they have all the advantages of spatial dose distribution and, at the same time, are densely ionizing radiations capable of effectively affecting hypoxic, slow-growing tumors and other neoplasms that are insensitive to traditional types of radiation. It is well known that one of the main methods for treating neoplasms is chemotherapy. The predominant mechanism of action of anti-tumor drugs is the induction of DNA damage with the subsequent impossibility of repair. In our study, we used an anti-tumor antibiotic of the anthracycline series, doxorubicin. The assessment of the potential significance of the synergistic interaction of ionizing radiation with chemical preparations in medical radiology remains an urgent and unresolved problem. It is possible to achieve the maximum effect of the combined action of two agents when they act simultaneously. The phenomenon of synergy can be used to optimize the combined use of radiation and chemotherapy in clinical practice. In this regard, it seems relevant to conduct a study for HeLa cancer cells exposed to ionizing radiation, an antitumor drug, as well as their combination. In the course of the study, results were obtained on the manifestation of the synergistic nature of the agents used, which is of great practical and theoretical importance for understanding the mechanism of the combined effect of ionizing radiation and the chemotherapy drug (doxorubicin). The obtained data can be helpful in optimizing the combined effects in order to achieve maximum synergistic interaction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (4) ◽  
pp. 7-17
O.V. Pylypenko ◽  
S.I. Dolgopolov ◽  
N.V. Khoriak ◽  
N.D. Nikolayev ◽  

Despite of the package of measures to adjust a liquid-propellant rocket engine (LPRE) to a specified operating regime, minimum acceptable spreads in the geometrical parameters and operating conditions of its units and assemblies steel remain. These internal factors together with external ones (the pressure and temperature of the propellant components at the engine inlet) govern the engine thrust spread. To provide an acceptable engine thrust spread according to the engine requirements specification, it is important to know the spread value as early as at the stage of off-engine tryout of the engine units and assemblies. The aim of this work is to develop a procedure for calculating the effect of external and internal factors on the LPRE startup thrust spread. This paper presents a procedure for determining the effect of internal and external factors on the LPRE startup thrust spread. The procedure includes the development of a mathematical model of engine startup that accounts for the maximum number of internal factors, the choice of internal factors that produce the maximum effect on the LPRE startup thrust spread, the choice of a method for specifying the external and internal factor spread, engine startup calculations at different combinations of external and internal factor spread values, engine thrust spread determination, determining the statistical and the theoretical distributions of the 90 percent thrust time spread and the steady thrust spread, and assessing their goodness of fit using Pearson’s chi-squared test. The paper gives an example of calculating the effect of the external and internal factor spread on the LPRE startup thrust spread for a staged-combustion oxidizer-rich sustainer LPRE. Using the results of previous calculations, 12 internal factors that produce the maximum effect on the engine startup thrust spread are identified. It is shown that the calculated spread of the 90 percent thrust (combustion chamber pressure) time lies in the range – 0.08220s to +0.07300s about its nominal value, and the calculated steady engine thrust (combustion chamber pressure) spread lies in the range –6.4 percent to +6.6 percent of the nominal thrust. Using Pearson’s chi-squared test, an estimate is obtained for the goodness of fit of the anticipated theoretical distributions of the 90 percent thrust time spread and the steady thrust spread to the obtained statistical ones.

Kenza Nadeem ◽  
Naila Zahoor ◽  
Rabia Tabassum ◽  
Ziauddin Kashmiri ◽  
Muneeba Arshad ◽  

Objective: To compare mean time taken for tracheal intubation with Airtraq versus Macintosh laryngoscope in elective surgeries. Study Design: This is a Randomized control trial (RCT) study. Setting: Study carried out at Department of Anaesthesiology, Surgical Intensive Care Unit and Pain Management, Clinic, Dow University of Health Sciences and  Dr. Ruth Pfau  Hospital Karachi, from June 2016 to November 2016. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients divided 30 in each group randomly i.e. Macintosh laryngoscope Group A and Airtraq laryngoscope Group B who scheduled for elective surgery and fulfill the inclusion criteria. All patients were received intravenous glycopyrolate 0.2 mg, tramadol 2 mg/kg, and midazolam 0.03 mg/kg 10 minutes before induction of anesthesia. Induction was done with propofol 2-2.5 mg/kg, minimum 3 minutes were given to maximum effect of muscle relaxant. Time taken to intubate the trachea were noted in seconds and entered into the predesigned proforma. Results: The analysis included data on all the patients between 18 to 50 years of age who scheduled for elective surgery during the study period after applying the exclusion criteria. Mean ± SD of age in group A were 36.85±8.47 years and in group B were 37.49±9.32 years. In Gender distribution of group A 11 (36%) were male and 19 (64%) were female and in group B the distribution of male and female were 8 (27%) and 22 (73%) respectively. By comparing both the groups for time taken in tracheal intubation in seconds Mean ± SD of group A was 35±7.8 and in group B was 21±4.2 and P value found to be highly significant i.e. (0.0001).  Conclusion: It is to be concluded that Airtraq laryngoscope is more effective instrument than Macintosh Laryngoscope for use in routine airway management and duration of successful tracheal intubation was shorter in the Airtraq group.

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