hospital admission
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2022 ◽  
Laura Baquedano ◽  
Javier Navarro ◽  
Yasmina José ◽  
Alexander Tristancho ◽  
Ana Ruiz ◽  

Abstract ObjectiveTo address the factors involved in hospital admission and medical follow up in postmenopausal women with COVID-19 diagnosis.MethodsRetrospective observational study. Postmenopausal women aged between 40-70 years since September 2020 until June 2021 with COVID-19 diagnosis were included. Of the 300 women cohort, 50 were receiving menopause hormone therapy (MHT)Results 288 patients were analyzed. The mean age was 56.20 years (+/-6.06y SD). Age (p=0.030), High blood pressure (HBP) (p=0.002), respiratory disorders (p=0.003), depression (p=0.028) and fibromyalgia (p=0.030) were associated with a greater risk for hospital admission, while MHT was found as a protective factor (p=0.042). Being a health professional (p<0.001), HBP (p=0.029), respiratory disorders (p=0.022), vitamin D deficiency (p=0.010), depression (p=0.005) and fibromyalgia (p=0.001) were related with a longer follow up while MHT was related with a shorter one (p=0.010). Regression analysis showed that HBP and respiratory disorders acted as independent factors for hospital admission while MHT and fibromyalgia were for the length of follow up. ConclusionsMHT has a positive impact in postmenopausal women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. HBP and respiratory disorders are associated with a higher risk of hospital admission of these patients.

2022 ◽  
Hannah Hussey ◽  
Mary-Ann Davies ◽  
Alexa Heekes ◽  
Carolyn Williamson ◽  
Ziyaad Valley-Omar ◽  

Background Emerging data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern (VOC)is associated with reduced risk of severe disease. The extent to which this reflects a difference in the inherent virulence of Omicron, or just higher levels of population immunity, is currently not clear. Methods RdRp target delay (RTD: a difference in cycle threshold value of RdRp - E > 3.5) in the Seegene AllplexTM 2019-nCoV PCR assay is a proxy marker for the Delta VOC. The absence of this proxy marker in the transition period was used to identify suspected Omicron VOC infections. Cox regression was performed for the outcome of hospital admission in those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on the Seegene AllplexTM assay from 1 November to 14 December 2021 in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, public sector. Vaccination status at time of diagnosis, as well as prior diagnosed infection and comorbidities, were adjusted for. Results 150 cases with RTD (proxy for Delta) and 1486 cases without RTD (proxy for Omicron) were included. Cases without RTD had a lower hazard of admission (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] of 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.91). Complete vaccination was protective of admission with an aHR of 0.45 (95%CI 0.26-0.77). Conclusion Omicron has resulted in a lower risk of hospital admission, compared to contemporaneous Delta infection in the Western Cape Province, when using the proxy marker of RTD. Under-ascertainment of reinfections with an immune escape variant like Omicron remains a challenge to accurately assessing variant virulence.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106002802110633
Rima A. Mohammad ◽  
Cynthia T. Nguyen ◽  
Patrick G. Costello ◽  
Janelle O. Poyant ◽  
Siu Yan Amy Yeung ◽  

Background Currently, there is limited literature on the impact of the COVID-19 infection on medications and medical conditions in COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Our study is, to our knowledge, the first multicenter study to describe the prevalence of new medical conditions and medication changes at hospital discharge in COVID-19 ICU survivors. Objective To determine the number of medical conditions and medications at hospital admission compared to at hospital discharge in COVID-19 ICU survivors. Methods Retrospective multicenter observational study (7 ICUs) evaluated new medical conditions and medication changes at hospital discharge in patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to an ICU between March 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021. Patient and hospital characteristics, baseline and hospital discharge medication and medical conditions, ICU and hospital length of stay, and Charlson comorbidity index were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe patient characteristics and number and type of medical conditions and medications. Paired t-test was used to compare number of medical conditions and medications from hospital discharge to admission. Results Of the 973 COVID-19 ICU survivors, 67.4% had at least one new medical condition and 88.2% had at least one medication change. Median number of medical conditions (increased from 3 to 4, P < .0001) and medications (increased from 5 to 8, P < .0001) increased from admission to discharge. Most common new medical conditions at discharge were pulmonary disorders, venous thromboembolism, psychiatric disorders, infection, and diabetes. Most common therapeutic categories associated with medication change were cardiology, gastroenterology, pain, hematology, and endocrinology. Conclusion and Relevance Our study found that the number of medical conditions and medications increased from hospital admission to discharge. Our results provide additional data to help guide providers on using targeted approaches to manage medications and diseases in COVID-19 ICU survivors after hospital discharge.

2022 ◽  
pp. 194338752110734
Jordan Richardson ◽  
Dani Stanbouly ◽  
Harrison Moynihan ◽  
Renée M. Reynolds ◽  
Matthew J. Recker ◽  

Study Design The investigators designed and implemented a 20-year cross-sectional study using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Objective The purpose of this study is to estimate and compare hospital admission (danger) rates between rugby and football of those who presented to the emergency department with head and neck injuries after playing these sports. Methods The primary predictor variable was sport played. The primary outcome variable was danger, measured by hospital admission rates. Results Over the past 20 years, there has been a trend of decreasing incidence of injuries presenting to the emergency department in both sports. There was no difference in the rate of hospital admission when comparing football and rugby (OR, 1.2; P = .1). Male gender was associated with an increased risk of admission. Other variables associated with hospital admission included white racial group, injury taking place in the fall, being either young (15–24 years old) or senior (65 years of age and over), and being injured at school or at a sport/recreational facility. Conclusions There is no difference in danger as measured by admission rates between American football and rugby. There exists, however, several variables that are associated with admission when sustaining injury to the head and neck, when playing these two sports.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Sara Guillen-Aguinaga ◽  
Antonio Brugos-Larumbe ◽  
Laura Guillen-Aguinaga ◽  
Felipe Ortuño ◽  
Francisco Guillen-Grima ◽  

(1) Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher mortality, with cardiovascular diseases being the first cause of mortality. This study aims to estimate the excess risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events in schizophrenic patients, adjusting for comorbidity and risk factors. (2) Methods: The APNA study is a dynamic prospective cohort of all residents in Navarra, Spain. A total of 505,889 people over 18 years old were followed for five years. The endpoint was hospital admissions for a cardiovascular event. Direct Acyclic Graphs (DAG) and Cox regression were used. (3) Results: Schizophrenic patients had a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.414 (95% CI 1.031–1.938) of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, low income, obesity, antecedents of cardiovascular disease, and smoking. In non-adherent to antipsychotic treatment schizophrenia patients, the HR was 2.232 (95% CI 1.267–3.933). (4) Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events than persons with the same risk factors without schizophrenia. Primary care nursing interventions should monitor these patients and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Kevin M. Trentino ◽  
Karin Schwarzbauer ◽  
Andreas Mitterecker ◽  
Axel Hofmann ◽  
Adam Lloyd ◽  

BMJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. e067519 ◽  
Seilesh Kadambari ◽  
Raphael Goldacre ◽  
Eva Morris ◽  
Michael J Goldacre ◽  
Andrew J Pollard

AbstractObjectiveTo assess the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on hospital admission rates and mortality outcomes for childhood respiratory infections, severe invasive infections, and vaccine preventable disease in England.DesignPopulation based observational study of 19 common childhood respiratory, severe invasive, and vaccine preventable infections, comparing hospital admission rates and mortality outcomes before and after the onset of the pandemic in England.SettingHospital admission data from every NHS hospital in England from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021 with record linkage to national mortality data.PopulationChildren aged 0-14 years admitted to an NHS hospital with a selected childhood infection from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021.Main outcome measuresFor each infection, numbers of hospital admissions every month from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021, percentage changes in the number of hospital admissions before and after 1 March 2020, and adjusted odds ratios to compare 60 day case fatality outcomes before and after 1 March 2020.ResultsAfter 1 March 2020, substantial and sustained reductions in hospital admissions were found for all but one of the 19 infective conditions studied. Among the respiratory infections, the greatest percentage reductions were for influenza (mean annual number admitted between 1 March 2017 and 29 February 2020 was 5379 and number of children admitted from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 was 304, 94% reduction, 95% confidence interval 89% to 97%), and bronchiolitis (from 51 655 to 9423, 82% reduction, 95% confidence interval 79% to 84%). Among the severe invasive infections, the greatest reduction was for meningitis (50% reduction, 47% to 52%). For the vaccine preventable infections, reductions ranged from 53% (32% to 68%) for mumps to 90% (80% to 95%) for measles. Reductions were seen across all demographic subgroups and in children with underlying comorbidities. Corresponding decreases were also found for the absolute numbers of 60 day case fatalities, although the proportion of children admitted for pneumonia who died within 60 days increased (age-sex adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 2.05). More recent data indicate that some respiratory infections increased to higher levels than usual after May 2021.ConclusionsDuring the covid-19 pandemic, a range of behavioural changes (adoption of non-pharmacological interventions) and societal strategies (school closures, lockdowns, and restricted travel) were used to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which also reduced admissions for common and severe childhood infections. Continued monitoring of these infections is required as social restrictions evolve.

Charlotte S Ho ◽  
Darren SJ Ting ◽  
Devina Gogi

Background/aims Chronic ophthalmic conditions, such as glaucoma and dry eye disease, are frequently encountered debilitating eye conditions that can lead to substantial reduction in vision and quality of life. However, there is ongoing evidence to suggest that topical ophthalmic therapy is inappropriately omitted on admission to hospital. The primary aim of this audit was to investigate the trust adherence to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline on the prescribing standard of eye drops during hospital admission. The secondary aim was to raise awareness and ensure successful compliance with national standards to reduce unintentional omission of eye drops on admission and subsequent complications. Method Electronic medical records of all medical and surgical adult inpatients were studied prospectively on two different occasions. The quality of documentation of eye drops in clerking notes, the length of time taken between the admission and prescription of eye drops, and the accuracy of the prescription were examined. Following the initial audit, interventions focusing on clinician education were implemented. This includes highlighting the importance of eye drops in all departmental mandatory introductory sessions and putting up posters on all the wards as prompts. The same data collection method was used in the reaudit. Results In the initial audit, 64 (mean age 81.8±8.9 years) patients with regular prescriptions for eye drops were identified; 38 (59.4%) patients had eye drops for dry eye disease only, 20 (31.3%) patients had eye drops for glaucoma only, and six (9.4%) patients had eye drops for both. In the reaudit, 57 (mean age 76.7±15.3 years) patients were identified; 42 (73.7%) patients had eye drops for dry eye disease only, 10 (17.5%) patients had eye drops for glaucoma only, and five (8.8%) patients had eye drops for both. Following the intervention, there was a significant improvement in documentation of ocular diagnosis and eye drops on clerking notes from 41% to 65% (P=0.008), and eye drop reconciliation within 24 hours of admission improved from 45% to 75% (P=0.0008). All patients (100%) received the correct eye drop prescription before and after the intervention. Conclusions Education is effective in promoting adherence to national guidelines and reducing the incidence of inappropriate omission of eye drops on admission to hospital.

2022 ◽  
Joseph A Lewnard ◽  
Vennis X Hong ◽  
Manish M Patel ◽  
Rebecca Kahn ◽  
Marc Lipsitch ◽  

Background: The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly achieved global dissemination, accounting for most infections in the United States by December 2021. Risk of severe outcomes associated with Omicron infections, as compared to earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants, remains unclear. Methods: We analyzed clinical and epidemiologic data from cases testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection within the Kaiser Permanente Southern California healthcare system from November 30, 2021 to January 1, 2022, using S gene target failure (SGTF) as assessed by the ThermoFisher TaqPath ComboKit assay as a proxy for Omicron infection. We fit Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to any hospital admission and hospital admissions associated with new-onset respiratory symptoms, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality among cases with Omicron and Delta (non-SGTF) variant infections. We fit parametric competing risk models to compare lengths of hospital stay among admitted cases with Omicron and Delta variant infections. Results: Our analyses included 52,297 cases with SGTF (Omicron) and 16,982 cases with non-SGTF (Delta [B.1.617.2]) infections, respectively. Hospital admissions occurred among 235 (0.5%) and 222 (1.3%) of cases with Omicron and Delta variant infections, respectively. Among cases first tested in outpatient settings, the adjusted hazard ratios for any subsequent hospital admission and symptomatic hospital admission associated with Omicron variant infection were 0.48 (0.36-0.64) and 0.47 (0.35-0.62), respectively. Rates of ICU admission and mortality after an outpatient positive test were 0.26 (0.10-0.73) and 0.09 (0.01-0.75) fold as high among cases with Omicron variant infection as compared to cases with Delta variant infection. Zero cases with Omicron variant infection received mechanical ventilation, as compared to 11 cases with Delta variant infections throughout the period of follow-up (two-sided p<0.001). Median duration of hospital stay was 3.4 (2.8-4.1) days shorter for hospitalized cases with Omicron variant infections as compared to hospitalized patients with Delta variant infections, reflecting a 69.6% (64.0-74.5%) reduction in hospital length of stay. Conclusions: During a period with mixed Delta and Omicron variant circulation, SARS-CoV-2 infections with presumed Omicron variant infection were associated with substantially reduced risk of severe clinical endpoints and shorter durations of hospital stay.

Shazia Damji ◽  
Jerrold Perrott ◽  
Salomeh Shajari ◽  
Jennifer Grant ◽  
Titus Wong ◽  

BACKGROUND: Among hospitalized patients, a 48-hour window from time of hospitalization defines nosocomial infections and guides empiric antibiotic selection. This time frame may lead to overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Our primary objective was to determine the earliest and median time since hospital admission to acquire antibiotic-resistant pathogens among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of an academic, tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted for adult patients admitted to the ICU from home or another hospital within the same health authority in 2018, to identify the time to acquisition of hospital-associated pathogens: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacterales, non-ESBL ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Patients transferred from hospitals outside the health authority, admitted to ICU after 14 days of hospitalization, who were solid organ or bone marrow transplant recipients, or who were otherwise immunocompromised were excluded. RESULTS: In 2018, 1,343 patients were admitted to this ICU; 820 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 121 (14.76%) acquired a hospital-associated pathogen in the ICU. The probability of isolating a hospital-associated pathogen by 48 hours of hospital admission was 3%. The earliest time to isolate any of these pathogens was 29 hours, and the median was 9 days (interquartile range [IQR] 3.8–15.6 days). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients (85.3%) in this ICU never acquired a hospital-associated pathogen. The median time to acquire a hospital-associated pathogen among the remaining patients suggests that initiating empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics on the basis of a 48-hour threshold may be premature.

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