tamarix chinensis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 715-737
Allan D. Nelson ◽  
Turner Cotton ◽  
Sarah Brown ◽  
Paige Cowley ◽  
Sara Harsley

Knowledge of county floras in Texas is crucial for determining species composition, management, preservation, and restoration across the state. Like most Texas counties, floristic data for Erath County, Texas, is poorly known. The objectives of this investigation were to compile a flora for Erath County, determine the intro-duced, endemic, threatened, and endangered species, as well as make comparisons to the county’s original flora and that of the North Central Texas region. Field work was conducted from September 2003 to December 2009 at 35 sites in Erath County. In addition herbaria were searched to locate specimens from Erath County. A total of 870 species (888 taxa) were identified in 103 families. One hundred forty-four taxa were introduced while 744 taxa were native. Eighteen of the species are Texas endemics. There were two rare plants, Dalea reverchonii and Penstemon guadalupensis, but no threatened or endangered plants were found during the inves-tigation. Four state-listed noxious species were collected during the investigation—Arundo donax (giant reed), Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed), Tamarix chinensis, and T. gallica (salt-cedars).

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 3424
Weizhen Wang ◽  
Feinan Xu ◽  
Jiemin Wang

Investigating the energy and water vapor exchange in oasis riparian forest ecosystems is of significant importance to improve scientific understanding of land surface processes in extreme arid regions. The Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) provided many observations of water vapor and heat fluxes from riparian forest ecosystem by using a network of eddy-covariance (EC) systems installed over representative surfaces in the Ejina Oasis, which is located in the downstream areas of the Heihe River Basin, northwestern China. Based on EC flux measurements and meteorological data performed at five stations and covering representative surface types of Populus euphratica tree with associated Tamarix chinensis shrub, Tamarix chinensis shrubland, cantaloupe cropland, and barren-land, this study explored the spatio-temporal patterns of heat and water vapor fluxes over the Ejina Oasis riparian forest ecosystem with five different surface types over the course of a growing season in 2014. Energy balance closure of the flux data was evaluated; footprint analysis for each EC site was also performed. Results showed that energy balance closure for the flux data was reasonably good, with average energy balance ratio (EBR) of 1.03. The seasonal variations in net radiation (Rn), latent (LE), and sensible heat flux (H) over the five contrasting surfaces were similar, and a reverse seasonal change was observed in energy partitioning into LE and H. Remarkable differences in Rn, LE, and H between the five surfaces were explored preliminarily, associated closely with the soil properties and foliage phenology. Over the growing season (May–October) in 2014, the total ET ranged 622–731 mm for mixed forest of P. euphratica trees with associated T. chinensis shrubs with average daily ET of 3.6–4.2 mm; ET from T. chinensis shrubland was about 541 mm, with average daily ET of 3.6 mm. ET for barren-land was 195 mm. The total ET in irrigated cantaloupe cropland with plastic mulch was 431 mm for its four-month growing period with a total average of 3.8 mm d−1. Determination of ET over riparian forest ecosystem helps to improve reasonable use of limited water resource in the Ejina Oasis.

Jin Wang ◽  
Jinyu Li ◽  
Ping Han ◽  
Zhigang Yang ◽  
Xue Shen ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 895 (1) ◽  
pp. 012020
J Li ◽  
S Dong ◽  
Y Li

Abstract Pinus sylvestris, Artemisia ordosica, Tamarix chinensis Lour, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Salix matsudana Koidz were selected to design the models of forest belts. Through wind tunnel experiments, we analyzed the wind speed frequency, wind speed flow field and wind protection efficiency of two different configuration shelterbelts. The results showed the wind speed frequency of mixed shelterbelts was generally lower than that of single shelterbelts with the same configuration. The similarity of the average wind speed between No.1 A3 and No.2 C3 indicates that the windbreak effect of low-density arbor-shrub mixed shelterbelt was similar to that of high-density single shelterbelt. The average wind protection efficiency of No.1 A1 was similar to that of No.1 C2, indicating that the influence of density of pinus sylvestrison of wind protection efficiency is greater than the height of forest belt. the average wind protection efficiency of No. 2 A2 was 57.64%, which was similar to that of No. 2 B3, indicating that the height of the forest belt increased, and the influence of density on the protection effect of the forest belt decreased.Therefore, the wind protection ability of multi-species and highly hierarchical mixed forests was higher than that of single shelterbelt.

Yingbao Gai ◽  
Yongpeng Yang ◽  
Xiupian Liu ◽  
Guangyu Li ◽  
Shanshan Wang ◽  

An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, bacterium, designated CLL3-39T was isolated from seashore sediment collected at a Tamarix chinensis forest in the Marine Ecology Special Reserve of Changyi, Shandong Province, PR China. Cells of strain CLL3-39T were olive-shaped and no flagellum was observed. Strain CLL3-39T grew optimally at 33 °C, pH 7.5 and salinity (sea salts) of 40 g l−1. The main fatty acids in the cell membrane of strain CLL3-39T comprised anteiso-C15 : 0 (22.3 %), iso-C15 : 0 (14.0 %), C16 : 0 (9.2 %) and summed feature 8 (contains C18 : 1  ω7c/C18 : 1  ω6c. 26. 7 %). The main polar lipids of CLL3-39T were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The respiratory quinone was Q10. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain CLL3-39T was 69.6 mol%. The average nucleotide identity between CLL3-39T and Pseudoroseicyclus aestuarii DB-4T was 74.7 % and the in silico DNA–DNA hybridization value was 20.1 %. Phylogenetically, strain CLL3-39T belonged to the genus Pseudoroseicyclus , branching with only one type strain P. aestuarii DB-4T with 96.3 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, followed by Limimaricola cinnabarinus LL-001T (95.2 %). Based on its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, we propose strain CLL3-39T (=MCCC 1A14815T =KCTC 72665T) as a representative of a novel species in the genus Pseudoroseicyclus , for which the name Pseudoroseicyclus tamaricis sp. nov. is proposed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8291
Le Jiao ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Tao Sun ◽  
Wei Yang ◽  
Dongdong Shao ◽  

Saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis) is undergoing population declination and fragmentation due to climate change and human disturbance. The existing restoration strategies usually focus on improving the environmental conditions based on the environment–saltcedar relationship, while they ignore the role of spatial autocorrelation resulting from biological interaction and ecological processes. This oversight limits the efficiency and sustainability of the restoration. Here, we explored the spatial pattern of the saltcedar population in the Yellow River Delta, China, and its relationship with environmental factors, incorporating spatial autocorrelation. The plant and soil parameters were extracted by an airborne LiDAR system integrated with fixed soil environment measurements. The environment–saltcedar relationship incorporating spatial autocorrelation was evaluated with different regression models. Results showed that saltcedars aggregated at small scales (2–6 m), resulting from intraspecific facilitation and wind dispersal of seeds, while intraspecific competition was responsible for the random distribution at large scales (>10 m). The long-distance dispersal of seeds through water explained the significant positive spatial autocorrelation of saltcedars at distances up to 125 m. Consequently, resulting from intraspecific facilitation and seed dispersal, aggregation distribution and positive spatial autocorrelation within the saltcedar population improved the adaptability of saltcedar to environmental stress and thereby reduced the impact of environmental factors on the abundance of saltcedar.

Plant Disease ◽  
2021 ◽  
Feng Li ◽  
Lai Gang-Gang ◽  
Zhi Hui Zhao ◽  
Jing Xia Li ◽  
Ping Zhang ◽  

Salt cedar is an ornamental shrub/moderate tree species native to Asia and East Europe, and grows in salt-alkali soil, desert and other dry areas, which plays an important role in wind prevention and sand fixation as well as maintaining ecological balance. Salt cedar witches’-broom (SCWB), which was extremely pernicious to Salt cedar. It was first observed and reported in Xi’an, China in 2005 (Zhao et al.2005). Witches' broom symptoms were observed on 20 out of 150 (13.3%) salt plants surveyed from the Alar region and 10 out of 86 (11.6%) plants from the Akesu region in southern of Xinjiang in May 2020. The damaged plants compared with asymptomatic plants (Fig.1A), the major symptoms included branches clustered, intersegment shorten and coarsen, giving rise to the formation of clusters (Fig.1B). Total plant DNA was extracted from phloem tissues with asymptomatic symptoms and phloem tissues with witches'-broom symptoms by a CTAB-based DNA extraction method (Green et al.1999). The 16S rRNA gene and the phytoplasma universal primers P1/P7 and rpF1/rpR1 of the rp (ribosomal protein) gene were used for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification by using the extracted plant total DNA as the template. The PCR product was used as the template and the R16F2n/R16R2 prmer was used for nested PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene after the amplification was completed. The results show that no product was obtained in asymptomatic plants. When DNA samples from witches’-broom symptomatic plants were used as templates, fragments with lengths 1219 bp and 1174 bp, corresponding to 16S rRNA gene and rp gene, were obtained. 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and deposited in GenBank under accession number MW447513. BLAST analysis revealed that the partial 16S rRNA sequence of the phytoplasma associated with P. aphylla witches’ broom showed highest sequence identity (99.67%) to salt cedar witches’ broom phytoplasma, ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis’ (Accession Number: FJ432664). Phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted using MEGA-X (Kumar et al., 2018). Results showed taht the SCWB and 16S rXXX group’s‘Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis’, (GenBank accession: FJ432664) have the highest affinity (Fig.2A). A virtual restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP) was done to determinethe subgroup ( Zhao et al. 2009). The 16S rDNA sequence from the Tamarix chinensis plant showed 99.3% similarity with that of the “Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis” reference strain (GenBank accession: FJ432664), suggesting that the phytoplasma in this study belongs to “Candidatus Phytoplasma tamaricis”-related strain. Therefore, it can be stated that SCWB belongs to the 16S rXXX group. The partial rp sequences only shared 84.74% sequence similarity with that of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum’ (MG383523) of Apple proliferation group, a known subgroup 16S rX. Blast analysis based on the partial rp sequences showed that it shares less than 90% similarity with that of any known phytoplasma (Fig 2B), we suspect that this is due to a lack of sequenced rp gene sequences for the 16S rXXX group. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Salt Cedar Witches' Broom phytoplasma in Xinjiang province, China. As a consequence, we guess the SCWB phytoplasma rp gene belongs to 16S rXXX-rp group, which is also the first report about the 16SrXXX-rp group. Because SCWB1 is the only strain in the 16S rXXX group, and it is the representative strain of the 16S rXXX-A subgroup (Zhao et al. 2009). So, the SCWB disease we found in southern Xinjiang belongs to the 16S rXXX-A subgroup.

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