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2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-31
Sri Harsha Gade ◽  
Sujay Deb

Cache coherence ensures correctness of cached data in multi-core processors. Traditional implementations of existing protocols make them unscalable for many core architectures. While snoopy coherence requires unscalable ordered networks, directory coherence is weighed down by high area and energy overheads. In this work, we propose Wireless-enabled Share-aware Hybrid (WiSH) to provide scalable coherence in many core processors. WiSH implements a novel Snoopy over Directory protocol using on-chip wireless links and hierarchical, clustered Network-on-Chip to achieve low-overhead and highly efficient coherence. A local directory protocol maintains coherence within a cluster of cores, while coherence among such clusters is achieved through global snoopy protocol. The ordered network for global snooping is provided through low-latency and low-energy broadcast wireless links. The overheads are further reduced through share-aware cache segmentation to eliminate coherence for private blocks. Evaluations show that WiSH reduces traffic by and runtime by , while requiring smaller storage and lower energy as compared to existing hierarchical and hybrid coherence protocols. Owing to its modularity, WiSH provides highly efficient and scalable coherence for many core processors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Wajeeha Bibi ◽  
Muhammad Asif ◽  
Jawad Rabbi

VMD is one of the desalination technologies used for drinking water purification because of it higher permeate flux and lower energy consumption, and it uses low grade energy for operation. However, there are some critical problems related to VMD, one of which is membrane fouling. In the present study, the fouling phenomenon in VMD is investigated using constant pressure-blocking filtration laws. The results of constant pressure-blocking filtration law indicated that the permeate flux was initially unaffected by the cake layer, but with the passage of time as the pores began to constrict, a formation of a relatively thick cake layer was observed, which resulted in the decrease of permeate flux.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 540
Shimi Sudha Letha ◽  
Math H. J. Bollen ◽  
Sarah K. Rönnberg

Light-emitting diode (LED) lighting has, compared to other types of lighting, a significantly lower energy consumption. However, the perceived service life is also important for customer satisfaction and here there is a discrepancy between customers’ experience and manufacturers’ statements. Many customers experience a significantly shorter service life than claimed by the manufacturers. An experiment was carried out in the Pehr Högström Laboratory at Luleå University of Technology in Skellefteå, Sweden to investigate whether voltage disturbances could explain this discrepancy. Over 1000 LED lamps were exposed to high levels of voltage disturbances for more than 6000 h; the failure rate from this experiment was similar to the one from previous experiments in which lamps were exposed to normal voltage. The discrepancy thus remains, even though some possible explanations have emerged from the project’s results. The lamps were exposed to five different types of voltage disturbances: short interruptions; transients; overvoltage; undervoltage; and harmonics. Only overvoltage resulted in failure of the lamps, and only for a single topology of lamp. A detailed analysis has been made of the topology of lamps that failed. This lamp type contains a different internal electronics circuit than the other lamp types. Failures of the lamps when exposed to overvoltage are due to the heat development in the control circuit increasing sharply when the lamps are exposed to a higher voltage. Hence, it is concluded that there are lamps that are significantly more sensitive to voltage disturbances than other lamp types. Manufactures need to consider the voltage quality that can be expected at the terminal of the lamp to prevent failure of lamps due to voltage disturbances. This paper therefore contains recommendations for manufacturers of lighting; the recommendations describe which voltage disturbances lamps should cope with.

Georg J. Houben ◽  
Sarah Collins ◽  
Mark Bakker ◽  
Thomas Daffner ◽  
Falk Triller ◽  

AbstractHorizontal wells play an often overlooked role in hydrogeology and aquifer remediation but can be an interesting option for many applications. This study reviews the constructional and hydraulic aspects that distinguish them from vertical wells. Flow patterns towards them are much more complicated than those for vertical wells, which makes their mathematical treatment more demanding. However, at some distance, the drawdown fields of both well types become practically identical, allowing simplified models to be used. Due to lower drawdowns, the yield of a horizontal well is usually higher than that of a vertical well, especially in thin aquifers of lower permeability, where they can replace several of the latter. The lower drawdown, which results in lower energy demand and slower ageing, and the centralized construction of horizontal wells can lead to lower operational costs, which can make them an economically feasible option.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8521
Zdzisław Bielecki ◽  
Marek Ochowiak ◽  
Sylwia Włodarczak ◽  
Andżelika Krupińska ◽  
Magdalena Matuszak ◽  

This article presents the concept of a method of improving the dynamics of combustion in boilers operating in power plants, cogeneration plants, and heating plants by introducing a catalyst that is fed with a carrier in the form of droplets. Thanks to the proposed method, a greater degree of fuel burnout can be obtained, which, in turn, results in lower energy consumption in the case of producing the same amount of power. The parameters of the emitted exhaust gases and ash are also improved. The method described in the article involves the adding of a catalyst to the dust pipe of the boiler, which improves the combustion parameters. The catalyst was implemented using a sprayer/nebulizer. In order to obtain the correct flow parameters, the sprayer was modeled using CFD calculations. The calculations include trajectories, velocities and concentrations with regards to various flow parameters. Particular attention should be paid to the model of the evaporation of moving droplets. The results of these calculations enable the parameters that guarantee that the catalyst reaches the dust channel outlet in the desired form to be assessed. The analysis is an introduction to experimental research that is carried out on a medium and large scale.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1429
Tomasz Gawenda

The aim of this article is to present possibilities of producing aggregates with an increased content of regular particles in some well-known examples, as well as to present previously unused methods of aggregate production. Traditional aggregate production systems require the use of three or four grinding stages (depending on the particle size of the feed), but fine fractions contain approximately 10% irregular grains on average. The conducted research has shown that in innovative patented technological systems, it is possible to obtain regular aggregates with a share of irregular grains below 3%. The separated irregular aggregates can be crushed again or used for other purposes. The advantages of such inventions include less grinding stages, reduced dust, and lower energy consumption. Regular aggregates also have benefits compared to typical ones. The analyzed aggregate products from various mines showed that regular aggregates have better properties, for example, higher resistance to grinding and abrasion. This article also describes the advantages of using such aggregates for concrete or other applications.

2021 ◽  
Nick Whitcomb ◽  
Abdulla Seliem ◽  
Rachel Marzen ◽  
Bernardo Jose Franco ◽  
Maria Agustina Celentano ◽  

Abstract The study area covers 1,300 km2 in southeastern Abu Dhabi and focuses on the Aptian (Apt.) 5 Upper Shuaiba progradational clinoform system. The Shuaiba Formation has been well-studied at the regional level, but with comparatively less focus on the Apt. 5 system. Studying depositional trends and shoal facies distributions within the Apt. 5 is critical for predicting reservoir presence and quality. Given the complexity of the Apt. 5 system, understanding the key controls over depositional environments, such as paleowind direction, is an important first step. This study combined regional context and geological understanding with previous studies to confirm existing clinoform interpretation, while also delineating four additional clinoform sequences using a reprocessed depth migrated 3-D seismic volume. Isochron maps were also used to group clinoforms into three packages distinguished by common morphologies possibly linked to their respective dominant reservoir facies. Preliminary observations suggest early clinoforms had more rudist build-ups, whereas the later clinoforms were dominated by narrow-shoal beaches. Coalescing clinoform shoal patterns, observed in the spectral decomposition and amplitude extraction maps, likely result from a combination of Bab Basin morphology, longshore current, and dominant paleowind direction during the Early to Middle Cretaceous. Existing interpretations of dominant paleowind direction vary significantly, ranging between E-W and S-N. Interpretations from this study are most consistent with prevailing paleowind out of the east-southeast. The Arabian plate was likely near the equator around 10°S latitude during the Aptian, which supports the southeast wind hypothesis when considering modern Coriolis patterns. Consistent wind influence on shallow water shoal environments would have winnowed mud and increased the proportion of grain-dominated sediment preserved relative to lower energy areas. The grain-dominated facies appear to be reflected in amplitude responses around the coalescing clinoforms, and in the amplitude variations along strike coincident with clinoform edges. Reservoir presence and quality uncertainty can be reduced if these observations can be confirmed. An improved understanding of the Apt. 5 clinoform system in southeast Abu Dhabi, and possible influences on reservoir distribution and quality, will help develop a better understanding of risk for prospect maturation.

2021 ◽  
Xiang-Yu Wang

Abstract Extra-galactic gamma-ray sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, starburst galaxies, are interesting and important targets for LHAASO observations. In this chapter, the prospects of detecting these sources with LHAASO and their physical implications are studied. The upgrade plan for the Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA), which aims to enhance the detectability of relatively lower energy photons, is also presented. In addition, a study on constraining the extragalactic background light with LHAASO observation of blazars is presented.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 01-04
Nida tabassum khan

Nanofiltration is a pressure-driven film measure for fluid stage detachments. It is employed in numerous applications due to lower energy utilization and higher motion rates. The properties of nanofiltration membranes lie between those of non-permeable reverse osmosis layers and permeable ultrafiltration layers where partition is typically thought to be because of size rejection and, sometimes, charge impacts. The improvement of nanofiltration development as a practical association over continuous years has provoked a pivotal extension in its application in different endeavours, for instance, treatment of blurring effluents from the material industries, division of medications from development stocks, demineralization in the dairy business, and metal recovery from wastewater and disease clearing

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