math performance
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2022 ◽  
Markku Niemivirta ◽  
Anna Tapola ◽  
Heta Tuominen ◽  
Jaana Viljaranta

This study investigated the developmental interdependence of Finnish school-beginners’ (N = 285) ability self-concept, intrinsic value, and performance in mathematics. More specifically, we examined: (i) whether and how children’s ability self-concept and intrinsic value in mathematics change over their first three years in school, (ii) how those changes are related to each other, (iii) how they predict later math performance, and (iv) whether there are gender differences in these trajectories. The results showed significant decrease over time in children’s ability self-concept and intrinsic value, but also significant individual differences in the trajectories. The high dependency between the levels and changes in children’s self-concept and intrinsic value led us to specify a factor-of-curves latent growth model, thus merging the trajectories of ability self-concept and intrinsic value into one common model (i.e., math motivation). The subsequent results showed prior math performance to predict change in children’s math motivation, meaning that higher initial competence was connected with less steep decrease in motivation. After controlling for the effects of first-grade math performance, both the level and change in math motivation predicted third-grade math performance and teacher-rated grades. That is, higher initial motivation and less steep decrease in it independently predicted better later math competence. Boys reported less steep decrease in math motivation than girls, despite no gender differences in initial math performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Bert Jonsson ◽  
Julia Mossegård ◽  
Johan Lithner ◽  
Linnea Karlsson Wirebring

A large portion of mathematics education centers heavily around imitative reasoning and rote learning, raising concerns about students’ lack of deeper and conceptual understanding of mathematics. To address these concerns, there has been a growing focus on students learning and teachers teaching methods that aim to enhance conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. One suggestion is allowing students to construct their own solution methods using creative mathematical reasoning (CMR), a method that in previous studies has been contrasted against algorithmic reasoning (AR) with positive effects on test tasks. Although previous studies have evaluated the effects of CMR, they have ignored if and to what extent intrinsic cognitive motivation play a role. This study investigated the effects of intrinsic cognitive motivation to engage in cognitive strenuous mathematical tasks, operationalized through Need for Cognition (NFC), and working memory capacity (WMC). Two independent groups, consisting of upper secondary students (N = 137, mean age 17.13, SD = 0.62, 63 boys and 74 girls), practiced non-routine mathematical problem solving with CMR and AR tasks and were tested 1 week later. An initial t-test confirmed that the CMR group outperformed the AR group. Structural equation modeling revealed that NFC was a significant predictor of math performance for the CMR group but not for the AR group. The results also showed that WMC was a strong predictor of math performance independent of group. These results are discussed in terms of allowing for time and opportunities for struggle with constructing own solution methods using CMR, thereby enhancing students conceptual understanding.

2022 ◽  
pp. 088307382110636
Eliza Li ◽  
Lisa Smithson ◽  
Muhammad Khan ◽  
Adam Kirton ◽  
Jacqueline Pei ◽  

The goal of this study was to examine executive functioning, math performance, and visuospatial processing skills of children with perinatal stroke, which have not been well explored in this population. Participants included 18 children with perinatal stroke (aged 6-16 years old) and their primary caregiver. Each child completed standardized tests of executive function and visuospatial processing skills, Intelligence Quotient (IQ), and math achievement. Performance on executive function, IQ, math, and visuospatial processing tests was significantly lower in children with perinatal stroke when compared to normative means. Poorer inhibitory control was associated with worse math performance. Increased age at testing was associated with better performance on visuospatial ability (using standardized scores), and females performed better than males on a test of inhibitory control. Children with perinatal stroke displayed a range of neuropsychological impairments, and difficulties with executive function (inhibition) may contribute to math difficulties in this population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Jade Lynne Morris ◽  
Victoria S. J. Archbold ◽  
Suzanne J. Bond ◽  
Andy Daly-Smith

2022 ◽  
Vol 59 ◽  
pp. 84-95
María Inés Susperreguy ◽  
Sabrina Di Lonardo Burr ◽  
Heather Douglas ◽  
Chang Xu ◽  
Jo-Anne LeFevre ◽  

Sandra Pellizzoni ◽  
Elisa Cargnelutti ◽  
Alessandro Cuder ◽  
Maria Chiara Passolunghi

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1609
Lital Daches Cohen ◽  
Nachshon Korem ◽  
Orly Rubinsten

Current evidence suggests emotion regulation is an important factor in both math anxiety and math performance, but the interplay between these constructs is unexamined. Given the multicomponent structure of math anxiety, emotion regulation, and math performance, here, we aimed to provide a comprehensive model of the underlying nature of the links between these latent variables. Using the innovative network analysis approach, the study visualized the underlying links between directly observable and measurable variables that might be masked by traditional statistical approaches. One hundred and seventeen adults completed a battery of tests and questionnaires on math anxiety, emotion regulation, and math performance. The results revealed: (1) state math anxiety (the emotional experience in math-related situations), rather than trait math anxiety, was linked to anxiety predisposition, subjective valence of math information, and difficulties in emotion regulation; (2) the link between state math anxiety and math performance partialed out the link between trait math anxiety and performance. The study innovatively demonstrates the need to differentiate between traits and tendencies to the actual emotional experience and emotion regulation used in math anxiety. The results have important implications for the theoretical understanding of math anxiety and future discussions and work in the field.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258886
Antonya Marie Gonzalez ◽  
Darko Odic ◽  
Toni Schmader ◽  
Katharina Block ◽  
Andrew Scott Baron

Despite the global importance of science, engineering, and math-related fields, women are consistently underrepresented in these areas. One source of this disparity is likely the prevalence of gender stereotypes that constrain girls’ and women’s math performance and interest. The current research explores the developmental roots of these effects by examining the impact of stereotypes on young girls’ intuitive number sense, a universal skill that predicts later math ability. Across four studies, 762 children ages 3–6 were presented with a task measuring their Approximate Number System accuracy. Instructions given before the task varied by condition. In the two control conditions, the task was described to children either as a game or a test of eyesight ability. In the experimental condition, the task was described as a test of math ability and that researchers were interested in whether boys or girls were better at math and counting. Separately, we measured children’s explicit beliefs about math and gender. Results conducted on the combined dataset indicated that while only a small number of girls in the sample had stereotypes associating math with boys, these girls performed significantly worse on a test of Approximate Number System accuracy when it was framed as a math test rather than a game or an eyesight test. These results provide novel evidence that for young girls who do endorse stereotypes about math and gender, contextual activation of these stereotypes may impair their intuitive number sense, potentially affecting their acquisition of formal mathematics concepts and developing interest in math-related fields.

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