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2022 ◽  
Vol 32 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-15
Author(s):  
Bin Wu ◽  
Runshi Xie ◽  
Gary W. Knox ◽  
Hongmin Qin ◽  
Mengmeng Gu

Crapemyrtle bark scale [CMBS (Acanthococcus lagerstroemiae)], a newly emerged pest in the United States, has spread to 16 U.S. states and unexpectedly spread on a native species american beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) in Texas and Louisiana in 2016 since it was initially reported on crapemyrtles (Lagerstroemia sp.) in Texas in 2004. The infestation of CMBS negatively impacted the flowering of crapemyrtles. We observed the infestation on the two most commercially available edible fig (Ficus carica) cultivars Beer’s Black and Chicago Hardy in a preliminary trial in 2018. To help estimate CMBS potential in aggravating risks to the ecosystem stability and the green industry, we conducted a host range and suitability test using ‘Bok Tower’ american beautyberry as a positive control with other eight beautyberry (Callicarpa) species [mexican beautyberry (C. acuminata), ‘Profusion’ bodinieri beautyberry (C. bodinieri), ‘Issai’ purple beautyberry (C. dichotoma), japanese beautyberry (C. japonica var. luxurians), ‘Alba’ white-fruited asian beautyberry (C. longissima), taiwan beautyberry (C. pilosissima), luanta beautyberry (C. randaiensis), and willow-leaf beautyberry (C. salicifolia)] and three fig (Ficus) species [creeping fig (F. pumila), roxburgh fig (F. auriculata), and waipahu fig (F. tikoua)] over 25 weeks. All the tested beautyberry species and waipahu fig sustainably supported the development and reproduction of nymphal CMBS and were confirmed as CMBS hosts. Furthermore, comparing with the control, mexican beautyberry, ‘Profusion’ bodinieri beautyberry, taiwan beautyberry, and willow-leaf beautyberry were significantly less suitable, while ‘Issai’ purple beautyberry, japanese beautyberry, ‘Alba’ white-fruited asian beautyberry, and luanta beautyberry were as suitable as ‘Bok Tower’ american beautyberry. Thus, when using beautyberries in landscapes, their different potential to host CMBS should be considered to minimize spreading CMBS through the native ecosystems.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Joachim R. de Miranda ◽  
Laura E. Brettell ◽  
Nor Chejanovsky ◽  
Anna K. Childers ◽  
Anne Dalmon ◽  
...  

AbstractIn 1977, a sample of diseased adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) from Egypt was found to contain large amounts of a previously unknown virus, Egypt bee virus, which was subsequently shown to be serologically related to deformed wing virus (DWV). By sequencing the original isolate, we demonstrate that Egypt bee virus is in fact a fourth unique, major variant of DWV (DWV-D): more closely related to DWV-C than to either DWV-A or DWV-B. DWV-A and DWV-B are the most common DWV variants worldwide due to their close relationship and transmission by Varroa destructor. However, we could not find any trace of DWV-D in several hundred RNA sequencing libraries from a worldwide selection of honeybee, varroa and bumblebee samples. This means that DWV-D has either become extinct, been replaced by other DWV variants better adapted to varroa-mediated transmission, or persists only in a narrow geographic or host range, isolated from common bee and beekeeping trade routes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
Author(s):  
Cyril J. Versoza ◽  
Susanne P. Pfeifer

Increased antibiotic resistance has prompted the development of bacteriophage agents for a multitude of applications in agriculture, biotechnology, and medicine. A key factor in the choice of agents for these applications is the host range of a bacteriophage, i.e., the bacterial genera, species, and strains a bacteriophage is able to infect. Although experimental explorations of host ranges remain the gold standard, such investigations are inherently limited to a small number of viruses and bacteria amendable to cultivation. Here, we review recently developed bioinformatic tools that offer a promising and high-throughput alternative by computationally predicting the putative host ranges of bacteriophages, including those challenging to grow in laboratory environments.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rahul Kaushik ◽  
Naveen Kumar ◽  
Kam Y. J. Zhang ◽  
Pratiksha Srivastava ◽  
Sandeep Bhatia ◽  
...  

Understanding the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a highly debatable and unsolved challenge for the scientific communities across the world. A key to dissect the susceptibility profiles of animal species to SARS-CoV-2 is to understand how virus enters into the cells. The interaction of SARS-CoV-2 ligands (RBD on spike protein) with its host cell receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is a critical determinant of host range and cross-species transmission. In this study, we developed and implemented a rigorous computational approach for predicting binding affinity between 299 ACE2 orthologs from diverse vertebrate species and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The findings show that the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 can bind to many vertebrate species carrying evolutionary divergent ACE2, implying a broad host range at the virus entry level, which may contribute to cross-species transmission and further viral evolution. Additionally, the present study facilitated the identification of genetic determinants that may differentiate susceptible from the resistant host species based on the conservation of ACE2- spike protein interacting residues in vertebrate host species known to facilitate SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, these genetic determinants warrant in vivo experimental confirmation. The molecular interactions associated with varied binding affinity of distinct ACE2 isoforms in a specific bat species were identified using protein structure analysis, implying the existence of diversified susceptibility of bat species to SARS-CoV-2. The findings from current study highlight the importance of intensive surveillance programs aimed at identifying susceptible hosts, particularly those with the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens, in order to prevent future outbreaks.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Syeda Zainab Ilyas ◽  
Hafsa Tariq ◽  
Abdul Basit ◽  
Hamza Tahir ◽  
Zulquernain Haider ◽  
...  

Salmonella gallinarum is a poultry restricted-pathogen causing fowl-typhoid disease in adult birds with mortality rates up-to 80% and exhibit resistance against commonly used antibiotics. In this current study, a temperate broad host range bacteriophage SGP-C was isolated against S. gallinarum from poultry digesta. It showed infection ability in all the 15 tested field strains of S. gallinarum. The SGP-C phage produced circular, turbid plaques with alternate rings. Its optimum activity was observed at pH 7.0 and 37–42°C, with a latent period of 45 min and burst size of 187 virions/bacterial cell. The SGP-C lysogens, SGPC-L5 and SGPC-L6 exhibited super-infection immunity against the same phage, an already reported feature of lysogens. A virulence index of 0.5 and 0.001 as MV50 of SGP-C suggests its moderate virulence. The genome of SGP-C found circular double stranded DNA of 42 Kbp with 50.04% GC content, which encodes 63 ORFs. The presence of repressor gene at ORF49, and absence of tRNA sequence in SGP-C genome indicates its lysogenic nature. Furthermore, from NGS analysis of lysogens we propose that SGP-C genome might exist either as an episome, or both as integrated and temporary episome in the host cell and warrants further studies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its similarity with Salmonella temperate phages belonging to family Siphoviridae. The encoded proteins by SGP-C genome have not showed homology with any known toxin and virulence factor. Although plenty of lytic bacteriophages against this pathogen are already reported, to our knowledge SGP-C is the first lysogenic phage against S. gallinarum reported so far.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Felicitas E. Flemming ◽  
Katrin Grosser ◽  
Martina Schrallhammer

The role of bacterial endosymbionts harbored by heterotrophic Paramecium species is complex. Obligate intracellular bacteria supposedly always inflict costs as the host is the only possible provider of resources. However, several experimental studies have shown that paramecia carrying bacterial endosymbionts can benefit from their infection. Here, we address the question which endosymbionts occur in natural paramecia populations isolated from a small lake over a period of 5 years and which factors might explain observed shifts and persistence in the symbionts occurrence. One hundred and nineteen monoclonal strains were investigated and approximately two-third harbored intracellular bacteria. The majority of infected paramecia carried the obligate endosymbiotic “Candidatus Megaira polyxenophila”, followed by Caedimonas varicaedens, and Holospora undulata. The latter was only detected in a single strain. While “Ca. M. polyxenophila” was observed in seven out of 13 samplings, C. varicaedens presence was limited to a single sampling occasion. After the appearance of C. varicaedens, “Ca. M. polyxenophila” prevalence dramatically dropped with some delay but recovered to original levels at the end of our study. Potential mechanisms explaining these observations include differences in infectivity, host range, and impact on host fitness as well as host competitive capacities. Growth experiments revealed fitness advantages for infected paramecia harboring “Ca. M. polyxenophila” as well as C. varicaedens. Furthermore, we showed that cells carrying C. varicaedens gain a competitive advantage from the symbiosis-derived killer trait. Other characteristics like infectivity and overlapping host range were taken into consideration, but the observed temporal persistence of “Ca. M. polyxenophila” is most likely explained by the positive effect this symbiont provides to its host.


Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 79
Author(s):  
Fanzhi Kong ◽  
Qiuhong Wang ◽  
Scott P. Kenney ◽  
Kwonil Jung ◽  
Anastasia N. Vlasova ◽  
...  

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus of swine that causes acute diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. PDCoV was first reported in Hong Kong in 2012 and its etiological features were first characterized in the United States in 2014. Currently, PDCoV is a concern due to its broad host range, including humans. Chickens, turkey poults, and gnotobiotic calves can be experimentally infected by PDCoV. Therefore, as discussed in this review, a comprehensive understanding of the origin, evolution, cross-species transmission and zoonotic potential of epidemic PDCoV strains is urgently needed.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Liliam K Harada ◽  
Erica C Silva ◽  
Fernando PN Rossi ◽  
Basilio Cieza ◽  
Thais J Oliveira ◽  
...  

Aim: Two lytic phages were isolated using P. aeruginosa DSM19880 as host and fully characterized. Materials & methods: Phages were characterized physicochemically, biologically and genomically. Results & conclusion: Host range analysis revealed that the phages also infect some multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Increasing MOI from 1 to 1000 significantly increased phage efficiency and retarded bacteria regrowth, but phage ph0034 (reduction of 7.5 log CFU/ml) was more effective than phage ph0031 (reduction of 5.1 log CFU/ml) after 24 h. Both phages belong to Myoviridae family. Genome sequencing of phages ph0031 and ph0034 showed that they do not carry toxin, virulence, antibiotic resistance and integrase genes. The results obtained are highly relevant in the actual context of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jens Andre Hammerl ◽  
Andrea Barac ◽  
Anja Bienert ◽  
Aslihan Demir ◽  
Niklas Drüke ◽  
...  

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an important animal pathogen, particularly for birds, rodents, and monkeys, which is also able to infect humans. Indeed, an increasing number of reports have been published on zoo animals that were killed by this species. One option to treat diseased animals is the application of strictly lytic (virulent) phages. However, thus far relatively few phages infecting Y. pseudotuberculosis have been isolated and characterized. To determine the prevalence of Y. pseudotuberculosis phages in zoo animals, fecal samples of birds and some primates, maras, and peccaries kept in the Tierpark Berlin were analyzed. Seventeen out of 74 samples taken in 2013 and 2017 contained virulent phages. The isolated phages were analyzed in detail and could be allocated to three groups. The first group is composed of 10 T4-like phages (PYps2T taxon group: Myoviridae; Tevenvirinae; Tequatrovirus), the second group (PYps23T taxon group: Chaseviridae; Carltongylesvirus; Escherichia virus ST32) consists of five phages encoding a podovirus-like RNA polymerase that is related to an uncommon genus of myoviruses (e.g., Escherichia coli phage phiEcoM-GJ1), while the third group is comprised of two podoviruses (PYps50T taxon group: Autographiviridae; Studiervirinae; Berlinvirus) which are closely related to T7. The host range of the isolated phages differed significantly. Between 5.5 and 86.7% of 128 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains belonging to 20 serotypes were lysed by each phage. All phages were additionally able to lyse Y. enterocolitica B4/O:3 strains, when incubated at 37°C. Some phages also infected Y. pestis strains and even strains belonging to other genera of Enterobacteriaceae. A cocktail containing two of these phages would be able to lyse almost 93% of the tested Y. pseudotuberculosis strains. The study indicates that Y. pseudotuberculosis phages exhibiting a broad-host range can be isolated quite easily from zoo animals, particularly birds.


2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (12) ◽  
Author(s):  
Merike Sõmera ◽  
Denis Fargette ◽  
Eugénie Hébrard ◽  
Cecilia Sarmiento ◽  

The family Solemoviridae includes viruses with icosahedral particles (26–34 nm in diameter) assembled on T=3 symmetry with a 4–6 kb positive-sense, monopartite, polycistronic RNA genome. Transmission of members of the genera Sobemovirus and Polemovirus occurs via mechanical wounding, vegetative propagation, insect vectors or abiotically through soil; members of the genera Polerovirus and Enamovirus are transmitted by specific aphids. Most solemoviruses have a narrow host range. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Solemoviridae, which is available at ictv.global/report/solemoviridae.


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