The relation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still uncertain. We aimed to examine the prospective association between serum ALP and CKD progression, and the modifying effect of serum ALP on folic acid in preventing CKD progression in treated hypertensive patients. This is a post-hoc analysis of 12,734 hypertensive adults with relevant measurements and without liver disease at baseline from the renal sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, where participants were randomly assigned to daily treatments of 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid, or 10 mg enalapril alone. The primary outcome was CKD progression, defined as a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥30% and to a level of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 if baseline eGFR was ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2; or a decrease in eGFR of ≥50% if baseline eGFR was <60 ml/min/1.73 m2; or end-stage renal disease. Over a median of 4.4 years, in the enalapril only group, participants with baseline serum ALP≥110IU/L (quartile 4) had a significantly higher risk of CKD progression (3.4% vs 2.3%; adjusted OR,1.61; 95%CI:1.11, 2.32), compared with those with ALP<110IU/L. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril only treatment, the risk of CKD progression was reduced from 3.4 to 2.1% (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95%CI:0.34, 0.83) among participants with baseline ALP≥110IU/L, whereas there was no significant effect among those with ALP<110IU/L. In hypertensive patients, higher serum ALP was associated with increased risk of CKD progression, and this risk was reduced by 47% with folic acid treatment.
The neutral and interlayer exciton originates from intralayer and interlayer coupling, respectively. Unlike neutral exciton, the interlayer excitons at room temperature are hard to observe and manipulate due to instability. In this work, we show the photoluminescence of WS$_2$ and MoS$_2$ neutral exciton can be improved by oleic acid passivation, allowing trion peaks to be observed at room temperature. More importantly, a 3-fold increase in peak intensity of interlayer excitons is achieved, and the energy peak is blue-shifted 107 meV. Our work paves the way to investigate excitons in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides monolayers and heterostructures at room temperature.
Giant fornix syndrome (GFS) results in chronic, relapsing conjunctivitis in elderly patients with enophthalmos and enlarged fornices, in which infectious material collects and perpetuates inflammation. A 98-year-old woman presented with persistent, bilateral, purulent conjunctivitis; corneal epithelial defects and progressive blepharospasm that did not respond to artificial tears, topical antibiotics and steroids and amniotic membrane grafts. Additional findings of deep-set orbits with enlarged upper fornices were diagnostic of GFS. Over the next 2 months, she responded to a combination of topical and systemic antibiotics, autologous serum eye drops, povidone-iodine forniceal rinses, and hypochlorous acid treatment of the eyelashes. GFS is an important diagnostic consideration in elderly patients with chronic conjunctivitis and deep-set orbits.