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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 630-633
Kiran Kumar L ◽  
M S Smitha Gowda

The most common atopic ocular condition in clinical practice is allergic conjunctivitis. One of the preferred treatment options for allergic Conjunctivitis is anti histamines eye drops. The study purpose is to compare the clinical efficacy between topical alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% in allergic conjunctivitis patients.A prospective, randomized, open label, parallel group, comparative study was conducted on 60 Patients with bilateral allergic conjunctivitis (30 in each group) after taking an informed written consentand was evaluated from May 2018 to November 2018. Patients were randomized into 2 groups of 30 each, group A received topical Alcaftadine 0.25% twice daily and patients in Group B received topical olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% twice daily for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated on first visit (baseline) followed by 7 and 14 day after starting the treatment. At each visit signs and symptoms were evaluated and rated using a scale from 0-3(0-Absent, 1- mild, 2 moderate and 3- severe). The change from baseline in the mean scores of itching, hyperemia, photophobia and tearing on day 14 is the primary outcome variable.: The signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis were reduced by 2 weeks from baseline after using both the drugs. Relative significant efficacy was achieved in alcaftadine group for Itching, hyperemia and photophobia, but not for tearing (p=0.3). When compared to 0.1% olopatadine hydrochloride, 0.25% alcaftadine is more effective in reducing the symptoms of all types of allergic conjunctivitis except those mentioned in exclusion criteria.

Alexandra Patchinsky ◽  
Nadine Petitpain ◽  
Pierre Gillet ◽  
Karine Angioi‐Duprez ◽  
Jean Luc Schmutz ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
Tian Zhou ◽  
Chang He ◽  
Peilong Lai ◽  
Ziqi Yang ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  

MSC-exo eye drops alleviate GVHD-associated dry eye disease by shifting M1 macrophages to M2 via miR-204.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 854
Ruiyi Ren ◽  
Anne A. Humphrey ◽  
David L. Swain ◽  
Haiyan Gong

We investigated whether an inverse relationship exists between intraocular pressure (IOP) and effective filtration area (EFA) in the trabecular meshwork (TM) in a steroid-induced ocular hypertensive (SIOH) mouse model and the morphological changes associated with the reduction of EFA. C57BL/6 mice (n = 15 per group) received either 0.1% dexamethasone (DEX) or saline eye drops twice daily for five weeks. IOP was measured weekly. Fluorescent tracers were injected into the anterior chamber to label EFA at the endpoint. Injected eyes were fixed and processed for confocal microscopy. EFA in the TM was analyzed. Light and electron microscopy were performed in high- and low-tracer regions of six eyes per group. The mean IOP was ~4 mm Hg higher in DEX-treated than saline-treated control eyes (p < 0.001) at the endpoint. EFA was reduced in DEX-treated eyes compared to controls (p < 0.01) and negatively correlated with IOP (R2 = 0.38, p = 0.002). Reduced thickness of juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) and increased abnormal extracellular matrix in the JCT were found to be associated with reduced EFA. Our data confirm the inverse relationship between EFA and IOP, suggesting that morphological changes in the JCT contribute to the reduction of EFA, thus elevating IOP in SIOH mouse eyes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 367
Miki Uchino ◽  
Norihiko Yokoi ◽  
Jun Shimazaki ◽  
Yuichi Hori ◽  
Kazuo Tsubota ◽  

This study aimed to investigate the actual use of eye drops for dry eye disease (DED), the reasons for instillation behavior, and the relationship between instillation behavior and subjective symptoms. This web-based cross-sectional study collected data on instillation behavior, medication instruction, reasons for instillation behavior, and subjective symptoms. In total, 2645 participants were enrolled. The proportion of participants who instilled at the frequency specified in the package insert (the specified frequency) was 10.2%. The most common reason for not instilling at the prescribed frequency was as-needed instillation to alleviate subjective symptoms, and 61.3% of participants instilled when feeling symptoms. The improvement in the subjective symptoms score was significantly greater in the group that regularly instilled at the specified frequency than the other group (p = 0.0027), and patients in the other group were younger and had a higher rate of contact lens use and over-the-counter eye drops use. In conclusion, most participants did not instill the DED eye drops at the specified frequency to alleviate symptoms. In order to obtain the appropriate effect of eye drops, ophthalmologists need to impress upon patients the importance of regular instillation at the frequency specified in the package insert, while taking into account patient characteristics.

Charlotte S Ho ◽  
Darren SJ Ting ◽  
Devina Gogi

Background/aims Chronic ophthalmic conditions, such as glaucoma and dry eye disease, are frequently encountered debilitating eye conditions that can lead to substantial reduction in vision and quality of life. However, there is ongoing evidence to suggest that topical ophthalmic therapy is inappropriately omitted on admission to hospital. The primary aim of this audit was to investigate the trust adherence to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline on the prescribing standard of eye drops during hospital admission. The secondary aim was to raise awareness and ensure successful compliance with national standards to reduce unintentional omission of eye drops on admission and subsequent complications. Method Electronic medical records of all medical and surgical adult inpatients were studied prospectively on two different occasions. The quality of documentation of eye drops in clerking notes, the length of time taken between the admission and prescription of eye drops, and the accuracy of the prescription were examined. Following the initial audit, interventions focusing on clinician education were implemented. This includes highlighting the importance of eye drops in all departmental mandatory introductory sessions and putting up posters on all the wards as prompts. The same data collection method was used in the reaudit. Results In the initial audit, 64 (mean age 81.8±8.9 years) patients with regular prescriptions for eye drops were identified; 38 (59.4%) patients had eye drops for dry eye disease only, 20 (31.3%) patients had eye drops for glaucoma only, and six (9.4%) patients had eye drops for both. In the reaudit, 57 (mean age 76.7±15.3 years) patients were identified; 42 (73.7%) patients had eye drops for dry eye disease only, 10 (17.5%) patients had eye drops for glaucoma only, and five (8.8%) patients had eye drops for both. Following the intervention, there was a significant improvement in documentation of ocular diagnosis and eye drops on clerking notes from 41% to 65% (P=0.008), and eye drop reconciliation within 24 hours of admission improved from 45% to 75% (P=0.0008). All patients (100%) received the correct eye drop prescription before and after the intervention. Conclusions Education is effective in promoting adherence to national guidelines and reducing the incidence of inappropriate omission of eye drops on admission to hospital.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Juan Carlos Martinez-Camarillo ◽  
Christine K. Spee ◽  
Gloria Paulina Trujillo-Sanchez ◽  
Anthony Rodriguez ◽  
David R. Hinton ◽  

Purpose: To investigate how modulating ocular sympathetic activity affects progression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a hallmark feature of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Methods: In the first of two studies, Brown Norway rats underwent laser-induced CNV and were assigned to one of the following groups: daily eye drops of artificial tears (n = 10; control group); daily eye drops of the β-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol (n = 10); daily eye drops of the β-adrenoreceptor antagonist propranolol (n = 10); sympathetic internal carotid nerve (ICN) transection 6 weeks prior to laser-induced CNV (n = 10). In the second study, rats underwent laser-induced CNV followed by ICN transection at different time points: immediately after the laser injury (n = 6), 7 days after the laser injury (n = 6), and sham surgery 7 days after the laser injury (n = 6; control group). All animals were euthanized 14 days after laser application. CNV development was quantified with fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography (in vivo), as well as lesion volume analysis using 3D confocal reconstruction (postmortem). Angiogenic growth factor protein levels in the choroid were measured with ELISA.Results: In the first study, blocking ocular sympathetic activity through pharmacological or surgical manipulation led to a 75% or 70% reduction in CNV lesion volume versus the control group, respectively (P &lt; 0.001). Stimulating ocular sympathetic activity with isoproterenol also led to a reduction in lesion volume, but only by 27% versus controls (P &lt; 0.05). VEGF protein levels in the choroid were elevated in the three treatment groups (P &lt; 0.01). In the second study, fluorescein angiography and CNV lesion volume analysis indicated that surgically removing the ocular sympathetic supply inhibited progression of laser-induced CNV, regardless of whether ICN transection was performed on the same day or 7 days after the laser injury.Conclusion: Surgical and pharmacological block of ocular sympathetic activity can inhibit progression of CNV in a rat model. Therefore, electrical block of ICN activity could be a potential bioelectronic medicine strategy for treating wet AMD.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Abdughani Alakkad ◽  
Paul Stapleton ◽  
Corinna Schlosser ◽  
Sudaxshina Murdan ◽  
Uchechukwu Odunze ◽  

Purpose: Chronic infections of Candida albicans are characterised by the embedding of budding and entwined filamentous fungal cells into biofilms. The biofilms are refractory to many drugs and Candida biofilms are associated with ocular fungal infections. The objective was to test the activity of nanoparticulate amphotericin B (AmB) against Candida biofilms. Methods: AmB was encapsulated in the Molecular Envelope Technology (MET, N-palmitoyl-N-monomethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycolchitosan) nanoparticles and tested against Candida biofilms in vitro. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging of MET nanoparticles’ penetration into experimental biofilms was carried out and a MET-AmB eye drop formulation was tested for its stability. Results: MET-AmB formulations demonstrated superior activity towards C. albicans biofilms in vitro with the EC50 being ~30 times lower than AmB alone (EC50 MET-AmB = 1.176 μg mL−1, EC50 AmB alone = 29.09 μg mL−1). A similar superior activity was found for Candida glabrata biofilms, where the EC50 was ~10× lower than AmB alone (EC50 MET-AmB = 0.0253 μg mL−1, EC50 AmB alone = 0.289 μg mL−1). CLSM imaging revealed that MET nanoparticles penetrated through the C. albicans biofilm matrix and bound to fungal cells. The activity of MET-AmB was no different from the activity of AmB alone against C. albicans cells in suspension (MET-AmB MIC90 = 0.125 μg mL−1, AmB alone MIC90 = 0.250 μg mL−1). MET-AmB eye drops were stable at room temperature for at least 28 days. Conclusions: These biofilm activity findings raise the possibility that MET-loaded nanoparticles may be used to tackle Candida biofilm infections, such as refractory ocular fungal infections.

Mathias Roth ◽  
Sebastian Dierse ◽  
Jan Alder ◽  
Christoph Holtmann ◽  
Gerd Geerling

Abstract Background Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is an orphan disease, with an estimated prevalence of 1–5/10,000. No data regarding the incidence exists. The primary aim was to evaluate incidence and prevalence of NK at a tertiary referral center in Germany, and the secondary aim was to analyze demographic parameters, etiology, and clinical features and therapeutic outcomes. Methods and material All patients treated for NK with serum eye drops (SED), amnionic membrane transplantation (AMT), or penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in 2013–2017 were identified. Age, sex, etiology of NK, visual acuity, disease stage, treatment, and visual acuity were analyzed. Incidence and prevalence of NK in our hospital and the overall population of the city were calculated. Results In 63 eyes of 60 patients (56.7% male; 68 ± 16 years), the most common underlying diseases were herpetic infections (23.8%), neurological causes (19%), and diabetes mellitus (14.3%). The annual incidence of NK in our tertiary referral center ranges between 5/10,000 and 3/10,000, the prevalence between 9/10,00 and 22/10,000. In all patients treated with corneal ulcers, the prevalence was up to 27% (2706/10,000). The incidence in the overall population is estimated at 0.1–0.3/10,000, the prevalence at 0.2–0.5/10,000 to 0.5/10,000. Conclusion Based on our assessment, the prevalence of NK in the overall population is lower than estimated before. However, in patients with corneal ulcers, the percentage of NK is comparably high. The disease may still be underdiagnosed due to the variety of underlying disorders and unknown comorbidities. Thus, in cases of therapy-refractive superficial keratopathy or ulcerations, NK should be considered more frequently.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-07
Mohammad Kamil ◽  
F Ahmad ◽  
M T Abdallah

Rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is used for bronchitis, as a carminative, for treating cough, cataracts and as a stimulant. The rhizome is cooked with salt and water and used as an expectorant. Extract of the juice of rhizome is used as eye-drops. In Yemen, it is mixed with other plants used for constipation, as a purgative, against colds, catarrh and acidity of the stomach. Root ginger is widely used for culinary purposes and as a spice. The rhizomes (imported from India) are used with cinnamon and cloves and made into a tea for treating colds and as a general tonic. The drink is also used as an aphrodisiac (Gazanfar, 1994). Ginger is useful in piles, rheumatism, headache, lumbago, pains, bleeding, chest congestion, cholera, cold, diarrhea, dropsy, nausea, stomachache, gastrointestinal disorders, vomiting, and diarrhea. The fresh juice of ginger acts as a strong diuretic. The juice of the leaves is effective against helminthiasis and marasmus and related conditions of diarrhea and dysentery (Monograph of Unani Medicine,2003).

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