Bacterial Conjunctivitis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-007
Author(s):  
Chigozie John Ekenze ◽  
Samuel Monday Utin ◽  
Timothy Olugbenga Ogundeko ◽  
Oyinyechi Lilian Umunnakwe ◽  
Lilian Chioma Owunna ◽  
...  

More exploration on medicinal plants and other natural products in the present era of increase in poverty level and multi-drug resistance has become crucial. The aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory activities of Vitellaria paradoxa seed oil extract on isolated staphylococcal conjunctivitis. Cultured sample of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a patient’s eye discharge in the Teaching Hospital Laboratory of the Imo State University, Nigeria having been diagnosed with bacterial conjunctivitis at the eye Clinic. After the incubation period, the diameter of zones of inhibition both horizontal and vertical were measured. Concentrations (100, 50 and 25mg/ml) of the ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa were assayed for the antibacterial activity - Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) using the agar well diffusion method. Ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at concentration of 100mg /ml exhibited the highest zone of inhibition at 37.4mm for 24hrs followed by 50mg /ml and lowest using 25mg/ml (5.0mm) indicating a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on Staphylococcal conjunctivitis. S. aureus isolated from conjunctivitis swab was susceptible to ethanolic seed oil extract of V. paradoxa at 100mg/ml, 50mg/ml and 25mg/ml concentrations, suggesting ethanolic extract of V. paradoxa oil as possessing antimicrobial property. Further exploration for its use as an ocular anti-bacterial agent is recommended.


Author(s):  
Siham Ali Hizam Al-Arosi ◽  
Essam Yahiya Al-shamahi ◽  
Abdulwahab Ismail Mohamed Al-Kholani ◽  
Ahmed Yahiya Al-Jawfi ◽  
Hassan Abdulwahab Al-Shamahy ◽  
...  

Background: Ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) is the most widespread eye infection occurring in the first 28 days of life. Although most of these cases are benign, some may progress to systemic complications or blindness if left untreated. Objectives: The current study was conducted with the aim of revealing the bacteriological causes of conjunctivitis in neonates and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of these bacteria. Subjects and methods: The study included all neonates at the age of 1 to 28 days presenting at the neonatal nurseries with Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and level II care beds in three hospitals; Authority of Al-Thawra General Hospital, Al-Kuwait University Hospital and Al-Sabeen Maternity and Child Hospital in Sana’a city, Yemen. A full history was taken from each nurse and mothers of the neonates included in the study in which the findings were recorded in a predesigned questionnaire including socio demographic, maternal clinical information and therapeutic interventions. To isolate the causative agent, the conjunctival swabs were inoculated on proper media and bacteria were identified by standard microbiological methods and antibiotic resistance was done for the isolates. Results: 203 swabs were collected from newborns with eye discharge over a nine-month period. Positive growth rate was 51.7%, males were more affected (57.1%), 80% of affected neonates had low birth weight, 71.4% of preterm infants were most affected (p <0.01).  There was a significant relationship between invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation with neonatal conjunctivitis (p<0.05). Gentamicin showed good in vitro sensitivity to all bacteria isolated, Staphylococcus aureus (83%), Escherichia coli 84.6%, with P. aeruginosa it was 60%. Conclusion: The vast majority of cases of neonatal conjunctivitis were mild with a high level of occurrence, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the major bacterial agents, neonatal conjunctivitis most likely to be a hospital-acquired infection. There was a significant association between phototherapy, non-invasive ventilation and incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis . Gentamicin had high activity against the bacteria isolated in this study.                   Peer Review History: Received: 9 November 2021; Revised: 11 December; Accepted: 27 December, Available online: 15 January 2022 Academic Editor: Dr. Sally A. El-Zahaby, Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt, [email protected] UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 6.0/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Bilge Ahsen KARA, Ankara Gazi Mustafa Kemal Hospital, Turkey, [email protected] Dr. Jucimary Vieira dos Santos, Hemonorte Dalton Barbosa Cunha, Brazil, [email protected]  Similar Articles: BACTERIAL CONJUNCTIVITIS OF ADULTS: CAUSES AND OPHTHALMIC ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERNS FOR THE COMMON BACTERIAL ISOLATES BACTERIAL CAUSES AND ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF EXTERNAL OCULAR INFECTIONS IN SELECTED OPHTHALMOLOGY CLINICS IN SANA’A CITY


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e245460
Author(s):  
Patrick Commiskey ◽  
Eve Bowers ◽  
Aidan Dmitriev ◽  
Alex Mammen

Giant fornix syndrome (GFS) results in chronic, relapsing conjunctivitis in elderly patients with enophthalmos and enlarged fornices, in which infectious material collects and perpetuates inflammation. A 98-year-old woman presented with persistent, bilateral, purulent conjunctivitis; corneal epithelial defects and progressive blepharospasm that did not respond to artificial tears, topical antibiotics and steroids and amniotic membrane grafts. Additional findings of deep-set orbits with enlarged upper fornices were diagnostic of GFS. Over the next 2 months, she responded to a combination of topical and systemic antibiotics, autologous serum eye drops, povidone-iodine forniceal rinses, and hypochlorous acid treatment of the eyelashes. GFS is an important diagnostic consideration in elderly patients with chronic conjunctivitis and deep-set orbits.


Author(s):  
А.В. Захарова

На долю конъюнктивита приходится 33% всех случаев заболеваний глаз. Конъюнктивит, или воспаление конъюнктивы, относится к ее наиболее частым заболеваниям. Независимо от этиологии клинические проявления примерно одинаковые. На прием в поликлинику приходят пациенты с жалобами на светобоязнь, ощущение инородного тела, покраснение склер, зуд, боль, слезотечение, отек век. Первой целью офтальмолога является дифференциация между вирусным и бактериальным конъюнктивитом. Вторым этапом необходимо провести детальный дифференциальный анализ между нозологиями. Для решения этих задач врачу необходимо провести детальный сбор жалоб и анамнеза, а также биомикроскопию переднего отрезка глаза. Вирусные заболевания глаз представляют собой серьезную медико-социальную проблему. Вирусы – одна из наиболее частых причин инфекционного поражения наружных структур глаза с широким спектром возможных проявлений – от легкого преходящего конъюнктивита до более серьезных состояний, при которых поражение конъюнктивы и роговицы может приводить к рубцеванию, что в некоторых случаях ведет к слепоте. Такие возбудители, как аденовирус, пикорнавирус, вирусы простого герпеса и герпеса зостер, могут вызывать изолированный конъюнктивит, однако нередко они поражают также роговицу и веки. В последние годы отмечается рост распространенности аденовирусных конъюнктивитов. Заболевание отличается высокой частотой встречаемости и поражает все возрастные группы. Рост заболеваемости приходится на осенне-весенний период, когда вирусная контагиозность повышена. В клинической практике для местной терапии таких заболеваний, как вирусные (аденовирусные и герпетические) конъюнктивиты, кератиты, кератоконъюнктивиты, увеиты, с высокой эффективностью используются препараты интерферона. Conjunctivitis accounts for 33% of all eye diseases. Conjunctivitis, or inflammation of the conjunctiva, is one of its most common diseases. Regardless of the etiology, the clinical manifestations are approximately the same. Patients come to the clinics with complaints of photophobia, a feeling of a foreign body, red eye, itching, pain, lacrimation, hyperemia and swelling of the eyelids. The first goal of an ophthalmologist is to differentiate between viral and bacterial conjunctivitis. The second stage is to conduct a detailed differential analysis between nosologies. To solve these problems, the doctor needs to conduct a detailed collection of complaints and anamnesis, conducting a detailed biomicroscopy of the anterior segment of the eye. Viral eye diseases are a serious medical and social problem. Viruses are one of the most common causes of infection of the outer structures of the eye with a wide range of possible manifestations - from mild transient conjunctivitis to more serious conditions in which damage to the conjunctiva and cornea can lead to scarring, which in some cases leads to blindness. Pathogens such as adenovirus, picornavirus, herpes simplex virus and herpes zoster can cause isolated conjunctivitis, but they often also affect the cornea and eyelids. In recent years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis. The disease has a high frequency of occurrence and affects all age groups The increase in morbidity occurs in the autumn-spring period, when viral contagiousness is increased. In clinical practice, for local therapy of diseases such as viral (adenoviral and herpetic) conjunctivitis, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis, interferon preparations are used with high efficiency.


2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 57-60
Author(s):  
Patria Dewi Pande

Abstract Infection disease of the eye usually found in health care facilities and can caused by viral,bacterial, parasite and fungi. Bali Mandara Eye Hospital was special hospital for eye disease in Bali. In this hospital infection disease of the eye dominated by bacterial conjunctivitis, viral conjunctivitis, corneal ulver, and endophtalmitis. This study was a restropective descriptive study using patient who are take eye secret culture in Bali Mandara Eye Hospital and sample were take from 2019 till 2020 It can be seen that was found seven microba and dominated disease was corneal ulcer 26 sample (86%) followed by endophtalmitis 4 sample (14%). The most microba were Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa found resistant in almost antibiotics and sensitive tolevofloxacin, gentamycin dan ceflazidime Keywords: infection, eye, culture, antibiotics


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 2095
Author(s):  
Yasser Mohamed ◽  
Masafumi Uematsu ◽  
Yoshitomo Morinaga ◽  
Hien-Anh Thi Nguyen ◽  
Michiko Toizumi ◽  
...  

Acute bacterial conjunctival infections are common, and this study identified the conjunctival bacterial community in infectious conjunctivitis cases seen at the outpatient clinic of Khanh Hoa General Hospital in Nha Trang, Vietnam from October 2016 through December 2017. Conjunctival swabs were collected and tested using conventional culture, PCR, and 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. The study included 47 randomly selected patients. More than 98% of all DNA reads represented five bacterial phyla. Three of these phyla constituted 92% of all sequences (Firmicutes (35%), Actinobacteria (31%), and Proteobacteria (26%)). At the genus level, there were 12 common genera that constituted about 61% of all sequence reads. Seven of those genera were common (Streptococcus (10%), Cutibacterium (10%), Staphylococcus (7%), Nocardioides (7%), Corynebacterium 1 (5%), Anoxybacillus (5%), and Acinetobacter (5%)), which encompassed 49% of all reads. As for diversity analysis, there was no difference on PERMANOVA analysis (unweighted UniFrac) for sex (p = 0.087), chemosis (p = 0.064), and unclassified eyedrops (p = 0.431). There was a significant difference in cases with bilateral conjunctivitis (p = 0.017) and for using antibiotics (p = 0.020). Of the predominant phyla, Firmicutes had the highest abundance in bacterial conjunctivitis in this study. Pseudomonas as a resident commensal microbiota may have an important role in the prevention of infection.


2021 ◽  
pp. 87-90
Author(s):  
A.E. Babushkin ◽  
◽  
N.E. Shrvchuk ◽  

The article is devoted to bacterial conjunctivitis. The review of scientific works on this problem presents the clinic, diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of this ophthalmopathology. At the same time, much attention is paid to antibiotic therapy of bacterial conjunctivitis. A special place in it is occupied by antibiotic fluoroquinolones, which have a wide spectrum of action, including gram-positive and gram-negative causative agents of eye infections, and can be considered the drugs of first choice in bacterial conjunctivitis, especially resistant to other antibiotics. Key words: bacterial conjunctivitis, clinic, diagnosis, treatment.


Author(s):  
Shubhangi Aher ◽  
Ravindra Pal Singh ◽  
Manish Kumar

The problem of bacterial conjunctivitis has dramatically increased in recent years due increased pollution and modern lifestyle. The present study was focused to fabricate Sparfloxacin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Spar-NLCs) for ophthalmic application to improve ocular penetration of drug and give sustained release of drug to reduce dosing frequency and toxic effect of drug associated with ocular membrane. A regular two-level factorial design was used to optimize the formulation parameters that are significantly affecting the formulation attributes. Spar-NLCs with particle size 171.1 ± 11 nm, zeta potential -49 ± 6.47 mV, entrapment efficiency 89.5 ± 5% and spherical in shape was obtained. Besides this, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that the drug is successfully incorporated in NLC and has excellent compatibility with the excipients. In vitro release study follows Korsmeyer peppas model and suggests that 81.35 ± 6.2% release of drug from Spar-NLCs in 12 hours. The result of ex-vivo permeation study demonstrated 349.75 ± 7.3 µg/cm2 of permeation of drug, 44.482 µg cm-2 hr -1 of flux, and 0.1482 cm hr-1 of permeability coefficient which is 1.7 folds higher than pure drug suspension. The antimicrobial activity of Spar-NLCs was better than the pure drug suspension and equivalent to the marketed formulation. Spar-NLC formulation did not showed any ocular damage, swelling, and redness in in -vivo Draize test. The ocular tolerance test (HET-CAM test) also suggests that the Spar-NLC formulation and its excipients were nonirritant to the ocular tissues. The formulation was found to be stable over the three month of stability study. Therefore, this work strongly suggest that Spar-NLCs has higher penetration and extended release of drug which can be effectively used in prevention of bacterial conjunctivitis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 151-157
Author(s):  
Chigozie John Ekenze ◽  
Oyinyechi Lilian Umunnakwe ◽  
Timothy Olugbenga Ogundeko ◽  
Chioma Lilian Owunna ◽  
Florence Akuchi Mbatuegwu ◽  
...  

A comparative in vitro study was conducted to ascertain the efficacy of 4 selected antibiotic eye drops against Staphylococcus aureus strain isolated from the conjunctiva of a patient diagnosed of bacterial conjunctivitis, and were assayed on the basis of the zone of inhibition. One and two drops volume of the test drugs were inoculated (administered). Results for average inhibition zone for 1 and 2 drops volume was Levofloxacin (26.88 mm), Ciprofloxacin (25.0 mm), Tobramycin (12.5 mm), Gentamicin (7.5 mm) and Levofloxacin (33.12 mm), Ciprofloxacin (30.6 mm), Tobramycin (19.3 mm) and Gentamicin (17.5 mm) respectively with two drops having higher effect than one for Levofloxacin˃ Ciprofloxacin˃ Tobramycin˃ Gentamicin by way of order of susceptibility. The difference in the average zones of inhibition produced by equal volumes of gentamicin and tobramycin and that between ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin both not statistically significant (p˃0.05). Fluoroquinolones showed greater zones of inhibition than the aminoglycosides significantly with levofloxacin more efficacious than ciprofloxacin. One drop prescription is thus recommended. However, if two drops must be prescribed perhaps due to severity of symptoms as the clinician may deem necessary, the drugs should be administered in divided doses. Antimicrobial sensitivity test should be conducted in cases of ocular bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus while treatment with fluoroquinolone especially levofloxacin eye drops as the first line treatment is also suggested.


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