immune infiltrate
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2022 ◽  
Vol Volume 15 ◽  
pp. 609-621
Yong-Guang Wei ◽  
Cheng-Kun Yang ◽  
Zhong-Liu Wei ◽  
Xi-Wen Liao ◽  
Yong-Fei He ◽  

2021 ◽  
Cecilia Graciela Giadans ◽  
Daniela Alejandra Ríos ◽  
Beatriz Ameigeiras ◽  
Leila Haddad ◽  
Elena Noemí De Matteo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Julia Femel ◽  
Jamie L. Booth ◽  
Tina G Asnaashari ◽  
Sancy A Leachman ◽  
Takahiro Tsujikawa ◽  

Purpose: Quantitative, multiplexed imaging is revealing complex spatial relationships between phenotypically diverse tumor infiltrating leukocyte populations and their prognostic implications. The underlying mechanisms and tissue structures that determine leukocyte distribution within and around tumor nests, however, remain poorly understood. While presumed players in metastatic dissemination, new preclinical data demonstrates that blood and lymphatic vessels (lymphovasculature) also dictate leukocyte trafficking within tumor microenvironments and thereby impact anti-tumor immunity. Here we interrogate these relationships in primary human cutaneous melanoma. Experimental Design: We established a quantitative, multiplexed imaging platform to simultaneously detect immune infiltrates and tumor-associated vessels in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded patient samples. We performed a discovery, retrospective analysis of 28 treatment-naive, primary cutaneous melanomas. Results: Here we find that the lymphvasculature and immune infiltrate is heterogenous across patients in treatment naive, primary melanoma. We categorized five lymphovascular subtypes that differ by functionality and morphology and mapped their localization in and around primary tumors. Interestingly, the localization of specific vessel subtypes, but not overall vessel density, significantly associated with the presence of lymphoid aggregates, regional progression, and intratumoral T cell infiltrates. Conclusions: We describe a quantitative platform to enable simultaneous lymphovascular and immune infiltrate analysis and map their spatial relationships in primary melanoma. Our data indicate that tumor-associated vessels exist in different states and that their localization may determine potential for tumor cell exit (metastasis) or leukocyte trafficking (immune response).

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. iii7-iii8
Inna Smalley ◽  
Zhihua Chen ◽  
Manali Phadke ◽  
Jiannong Li ◽  
Xiaoqing Yu ◽  

Abstract We interrogated the microenvironment of 43 clinical samples from melanoma skin, brain (MBM) and leptomeningeal metastases (LMM) using single-cell RNA-seq analysis to determine how therapeutic intervention shaped the immune environment and affected patient survival. LMM is a poorly-characterized, devastating complication of late-stage disease, typically refractory to treatment and associated with dismal survival time. Analysis of serial specimens over the course of therapy demonstrated reductions in melanoma cells and macrophages, coupled with increased levels of T cells and dendritic cells in the CSF of a rare extraordinary responder, whereas typical poor survivors showed no improvement in T cell responses. In MBM patients, both targeted therapy and immunotherapy was associated with increased immune infiltrate. Treatment with targeted therapy was associated with an enrichment of CD8 T cells, while immunotherapy was associated with a more diverse lymphocyte landscape and higher numbers of antibody-producing cells. These findings were confirmed by multiplex-IF staining of patient specimens and using an immune-competent mouse model of MBM. Interestingly, a history of prior radiation therapy was associated with a diminished myeloid compartment. Although immune infiltrate was significantly lower in the brain compared to skin tumors, the phenotypic make-up of the lymphocyte compartment was quite similar, suggesting that the immune cells may have trafficked from the periphery to the brain post-therapy. Correlation analysis across the entire immune landscape identified the presence of a rare, novel population of dendritic cells (DC3s) to be correlated with increased overall survival, regardless of disease site/treatment. The presence of DC3s positively regulated the immune environment of both patient samples and preclinical melanoma models through modulation of activated T cells and MHC expression in the tumor. Overall, we present the first ever comprehensive single-cell atlas of the tumor microenvironment in melanoma CNS metastases in response to therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 161 ◽  
pp. S902-S904
R. Robinson ◽  
I. Roxanis ◽  
F. Sobhani ◽  
K. Zormpas-Petridis ◽  
H. Steel ◽  

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (14) ◽  
pp. 3459
Daniel C. Rabe ◽  
Nykia D. Walker ◽  
Felicia D. Rustandy ◽  
Jessica Wallace ◽  
Jiyoung Lee ◽  

Purpose: To understand how tumor cells alter macrophage biology once they are recruited to triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumors by CCL5. Method: Mouse bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDMs) were isolated and treated with recombinant CCL5 protein alone, with tumor cell conditioned media, or with tumor extracellular vesicles (EVs). Media from these tumor EV-educated macrophages (TEMs) was then used to determine how these macrophages affect TNBC invasion. To understand the mechanism, we assayed the cytokine secretion from these macrophages to determine how they impact tumor cell invasion. Tumor CCL5 expression was varied in tumors to determine its role in regulating macrophage biology through EVs. Results: Tumor EVs are a necessary component for programming naïve macrophages toward a pro-metastatic phenotype. CCL5 expression in the tumor cells regulates both EV biogenesis/secretion/cargo and macrophage EV-education toward a pro-metastatic phenotype. Analysis of the tumor EV-educated macrophages (TEMs) showed secretion of a variety of factors including CXCL1, CTLA-4, IFNG, OPN, HGF, TGFB, and CCL19 capable of remodeling the surrounding tumor stroma and immune infiltrate. Injection of tumor cells with macrophages educated by metastatic tumor cell EVs into mice increased tumor metastasis to the lung. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that tumor-derived EVs are key mediators of macrophage education and likely play a more complex role in modulating tumor therapeutic response by regulating the tumor immune infiltrate.

2021 ◽  
Vol 79 ◽  
pp. S587
M. Saponaro ◽  
M. D’Ambrosio ◽  
A. Schmidt ◽  
N. Klümper ◽  
M. Hölzel ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 39 (15_suppl) ◽  
pp. 4100-4100
Philipp K. Haber ◽  
Miguel Torres-Martin ◽  
Jean-Francois Dufour ◽  
Chris Verslype ◽  
Jens Marquardt ◽  

4100 Background: Checkpoint inhibition with anti-PD1 is able to elicit objective response rates (ORR) of ̃ 20% in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (aHCC) but molecular biomarkers predicting response remain unknown. Here, we define biomarkers of response and primary resistance to anti-PD1 in aHCC by analyzing molecular features prior to systemic therapy. Methods: Through an international consortium of 13 referral centers, we gathered 111 fresh and archived tumor samples from patients with advanced HCC treated with single agent anti- PD1 therapy. Genomic analysis was performed with whole genome expression arrays, CTNNB1 exon 3 mutation assessment and histological evaluation. Results: Overall, we performed transcriptomic analysis in 83 patients, 28 of which were treated in first-line (ORR: 42.9%) while the remaining 55 patients were treated either in 2nd (41 patients, ORR 29.3%) or 3rd line (14 patients, ORR 7.1%) after prior therapy with tyrosine- kinase inhibitors (TKI) sorafenib or lenvatinib. In patients treated in frontline, response was associated with a significant upregulation in Interferon-γ signaling (IFNγ) and genesets relatedto the antigen presentation machinery (FDR < 0.05). Through differential expression analysis we defined an 11-gene signature that was significantly associated with both major pathways (FDR < 0.01) and was capable of predicting OR as well as progression-free- (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with aHCC. The signature was validated in three independent cohorts of melanoma, lung cancer, and head and neck squamous cell cancer patients were high expression was associated with a significant increase in ORR and longer PFS. In HCC, high expression of the signature was associated with a distinct profile in the immune infiltrate, where an increase in M1 macrophages (p = 0.003), CD4 memory T cell (p < 0.01) and CD4 naïve T cell-infiltration (p = 0.026) was observed. Conversely, low expression of the signature was associated with a marked upregulation of regulatory T cells (p < 0.001). No association was found, however, between either the overall immune infiltrate or CTNNB1 mutations and response. In patients that were treated with TKIs in frontline before receiving subsequent anti-PD1 therapy, the signature was no longer able to predict either OR or PFS/OS, suggesting that TKIs may reshape the microenvironment in a way that renders previously inflamed tumors no longer amenable to anti-PD1. Conclusions: Here, we define an 11-gene signature of response to anti-PD1 in first line aHCC. The signature was validated in patients with other solid cancer types, where it retained its predictive ability. Of note, the signature was not able to identify responders among HCC patients that were treated with TKIs prior to anti-PD1 therapy. The molecular changes induced by different treatment lines would, thus, require fresh biopsies prior to anti-PD1to enable biomarker-driven treatment.

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