high mobility group
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
Fathimath Zaha Ikram ◽  
Alina Arulsamy ◽  
Thaarvena Retinasamy ◽  
Mohd. Farooq Shaikh

Background: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule that plays an important role in the repair and regeneration of tissue injury. It also acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine through the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), to elicit the neuroinflammatory response. HMGB1 may aggravate several cellular responses which may lead to pathological inflammation and cellular death. Thus, there have been a considerable amount of research into the pathological role of HMGB1 in diseases. However, whether the mechanism of action of HMGB1 is similar in all neurodegenerative disease pathology remains to be determined. Objective: Therefore, this systematic review aimed to critically evaluate and elucidate the role of HMGB1 in the pathology of neurodegeneration based on the available literature. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed on four databases; EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL Plus. Results: A total of 85 articles were selected for critical appraisal, after subjecting to the inclusion and exclusion criteria in this study. The selected articles revealed that HMGB1 levels were found elevated in most neurodegeneration except in Huntington’s disease and Spinocerebellar ataxia, where the levels were found decreased. This review also showcased that HMGB1 may act on distinctive pathways to elicit its pathological response leading to the various neurodegeneration processes/diseases. Conclusion: While there have been promising findings in HMGB1 intervention research, further studies may still be required before any HMGB1 intervention may be recommended as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuyang Cao ◽  
Jiancheng Miao ◽  
Miao Qian ◽  
Chen Zhu ◽  
Shiping Ding ◽  

It has been documented that Helicobacter hepaticus (H. hepaticus) infection is linked to chronic hepatitis and fibrosis in male BALB/c mice. However, the mechanism underlying the mice model of H. hepaticus–induced hepatocellular carcinoma is not fully known. In this study, male BALB/c mice were infected with H. hepaticus for 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. H. hepaticus colonization, histopathology, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, key signaling pathways, and protein downstream high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the liver were examined. Our data suggested that the H. hepaticus colonization level in the colon and liver progressively increased over the duration of the infection. H. hepaticus–induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis were aggravated during the infection, and hepatic preneoplasia developed in the liver of infected mice at 12 and 18 months post-inoculation (MPI). H. hepaticus infection increased the levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the infected mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of IL-6, Tnf-α, Tgf-β, and HMGB1 were significantly elevated in the liver of H. hepaticus–infected mice from 3 to 18 MPI as compared to the controls. In addition, Ki67 was increased throughout the duration of the infection. Furthermore, HMGB1 protein was activated and translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the hepatocytes and activated the proteins of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (p38)] upon H. hepaticus infection. In conclusions, these data demonstrated that male BALB/c mice infected with H. hepaticus are prone to suffering hepatitis and developing into hepatic preneoplasia. To verify the effect of HMGB1 in the progression of liver preneoplasia, mice were infected by H. hepaticus for 2 months before additional HMGB1 recombinant adenovirus treatment. All mice were sacrificed at 4 MPI, and the sera and liver tissues from all of the mice were collected. Immunology and histopathology evaluation showed that HMGB1 knockdown attenuated the H. hepaticus–induced hepatic and fibrosis at 4 MPI. Therefore, we showed that H. hepaticus–induced liver preneoplasia is closely correlated with the activation and accumulation of HMGB1.

ORL ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Nongping Zhong ◽  
Qing Luo ◽  
Xiaoyan Huang ◽  
Jieqing Yu ◽  
Jing Ye ◽  

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterized by an inflammatory reaction. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein and interleukin (IL)-33 are damage-associated molecular pattern molecules and have many characteristics similar to pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of IL-33 and HMGB1 in AR remains unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the role of HMGB1 and IL-33 in AR. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Twenty patients with AR (AR group) and 10 normal controls (normal group) were enrolled in this study. HMGB1 and IL-33 expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in epithelial cells of the inferior turbinate mucosa samples. Then, the human nasal mucosa epithelial cells (HNECs) were cultured in vitro, and the house dust mite allergen (Derp1) was used to stimulate the cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA assay were performed to detect HMGB1 and IL-33 expression in HNECs. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The expression of HMGB1 and IL-33 in the nasal mucosa was higher in the AR group than in the normal group, with a statistically significant difference (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.05). In HNECs of AR, the expression of both HMGB1 and IL-33 in stimulated groups was higher than that in non-stimulated groups. The differences were statistically significant (<i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.05). In addition, they increased gradually with the prolonging time and the concentration of the added Derp1. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> The expression of HMGB1 and IL-33 were both increased in AR. HMGB1 and IL-33 may have a close relationship in AR.

2022 ◽  
Vol Volume 15 ◽  
pp. 609-621
Yong-Guang Wei ◽  
Cheng-Kun Yang ◽  
Zhong-Liu Wei ◽  
Xi-Wen Liao ◽  
Yong-Fei He ◽  

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 2000
Alejandra Rodríguez-Ortiz ◽  
Julio César Montoya-Villegas ◽  
Felipe García-Vallejo ◽  
Yecid Mina-Paz

DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications are epigenetics processes that contribute to neurophenotype of Down Syndrome (DS). Previous reports present strong evidence that nonhistone high-mobility-group N proteins (HMGN) are epigenetic regulators. They play important functions in various process to maintain homeostasis in the brain. We aimed to analyze the differential expression of five human HMGN genes in some brain structures and age ranks from DS postmortem brain samples. Methodology: We performed a computational analysis of the expression of human HMGN from the data of a DNA microarray experiment (GEO database ID GSE59630). Using the transformed log2 data, we analyzed the differential expression of five HMGN genes in several brain areas associated with cognition in patients with DS. Moreover, using information from different genome databases, we explored the co-expression and protein interactions of HMNGs with the histones of nucleosome core particle and linker H1 histone. Results: We registered that HMGN1 and HMGN5 were significantly overexpressed in the hippocampus and areas of prefrontal cortex including DFC, OFC, and VFC of DS patients. Age-rank comparisons between euploid control and DS individuals showed that HMGN2 and HMGN4 were overexpressed in the DS brain at 16 to 22 gestation weeks. From the BioGRID database, we registered high interaction scores of HMGN2 and HMGN4 with Hist1H1A and Hist1H3A. Conclusions: Overall, our results give strong evidence to propose that DS would be an epigenetics-based aneuploidy. Remodeling brain chromatin by HMGN1 and HMGN5 would be an essential pathway in the modification of brain homeostasis in DS.

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