Menstrual Disorder
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Faizah Mughal ◽  
Ashok Kumar ◽  
Jai Dev Maheshwari ◽  
Ali Nawaz Bijarani ◽  
Tayyaba Kazmi ◽  

Background: The menstrual cycle describes the healthy reproductive system of the women which is controlled by different hormones. Aim: The goal of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of irregular menstruation in different endocrine changes and to identify their association with the age of women in reproductive life. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on women attending the gynecological clinic of Karachi from March 2019 to June 2019. Of the 165 women with different hormonal changes 100 presented with menstrual cycle abnormality. Results: Among the women with menstrual irregularities 51% women presented with insulin resistance, 23% with hyperandrogenism, 19% with hypothyroidism and 7% hyperprolactinemia. Age-related association was observed in menstrual irregularities women with insulin resistant and hyperandrogenism. Conclusion: Menstrual cycle is a physiological process, any irregularities in cycle can be caused by  even  minimal  hormonal  imbalance.  As  a  result,  it  is  critical  to  address  endocrine abnormalities in order to improve women's reproductive health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Diana Rahima ◽  
Bambang Purwanto ◽  
Sri Ratna Dwiningsih

  AbstractBackground : Trained woean who experiencing menstrual disoders are found with high blood cholesterol level. This situation is contrary to who don’t experience menstrual disorder. Mentrual disorder condition has a low estrogen level. The low estrogen level is associated with endothelial disfunction which causes blood cholesterol increase. The benefit of omega 3 supplementation have been clinically proven to prevent atherosclerosis, decrease blood cholesterol levels, and playong an important role in modulating inflamation. Omega 3 supplementation is expected to decrease blood cholesterol levels in trained women. Method: This research is using field experimental with case control method. The samples are 30 trained womens contained by 15 are controlled and 15 are given treatment. The sampling technique is randomized allocation. The independent variabel is omega 3 300mg supplementation and the dependent variabel is blood cholesterol levels. Data are analized using parametric statistic paired T-test. Result: The bivariate analysis showed there is a meaningful difference on blood cholesterol levels in the treatment group p=0,0027 and no change in control group p=0,191 during treatment for 8 weeks. Conclusion: Omega 3 supplementation decrease a blood cholesterol levels in trained women. 

Durgavathi Kothapalli ◽  
Kamesari Kolluru

Background: Menstrual irregularities are common with thyroid disorders. It has been reported that hyperthyroidism the most common manifestation is simple oligomenorrhea and hypothyroidism usually is associated with polymenorrhea. Present study has been designed to evaluate the menstrual and endometrial patterns in women with thyroid disorders in costal Andhra Pradesh.Methods: During the study period of two years and ten months we have enrolled 110 patients with clinical presentation of thyroid disorder with menstrual irregularities as per our study criteria. Based on report patients were divided in to three groups, hyperthyroid, hypothyroid and subclinical hypothyroidism. Based on abnormal menstrual pattern patients were divided in to menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea, and amenorrhea groups. Endometrial biopsy was taken from women in perimenopausal age group and histopathological examination was done to know the pattern of endometrium.Results: Subclinical hypothyroidism was present in 24 (21.81%) patients, hypothyroidism was present in 52 (47.27%) patients and hyperthyroidism was present in 34 (30.90%) patients. amenorrhea was present in 26 (23.63%) patients, oligomenorrhea was present in 12 (10.90%) patients, Intermenstrual bleeding was present in 2 (1.81%) patients, Menorrhagia was present in 44 (40%) patients which was most common type of menstrual disorder and Polymenorrhagia was present in 26 (23.63%) patients.Conclusions: Hypothyroidism is most common thyroid disorder followed by hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism is least common. We have found that menstrual irregularities are more common in hypothyroid patients than hyperthyroid. Menorrhagia and Polymenorrhagia is more common than amenorrhoea and oligomenorrhea in hypothyroid patients. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 259-263
Roshnibala Sahu ◽  
Sudhuanshu Kumar Rath

Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a frequently encountered clinical presentation in gynecological OPD. They are not life threatening but can cause social, psychological and occupational disturbances. As thyroid hormones play a major role in the menstrual and reproductive function of women, studying for thyroid disorder in patients with AUB should be a logical step.This is a prospective observational study conducted in Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, BBSR, Odisha. Two hundred and eighty patients of age group 18 to 45 years presenting with AUB were included in this study. All were subjected to routine investigations along with thyroid function tests.Out of 280 patients, 56 patients (20%) had thyroid abnormality. Among which 26 were diagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism, 24 had hypothyroidism and 6 patients had hyperthyroidism. The frequent menstrual symptom associated with hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism was menorrhagia. Oligomenorrhea was seen in 50% of hyperthyroid patients.Any type of menstrual disorder should be considered as a possible presenting symptom of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid assessment deemed necessary in such cases, so that we can treat patients at the earliest and prevent morbidities in later life.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. e0248340
Jiali Wang ◽  
Anton H. Westveld ◽  
A. H. Welsh ◽  
Melissa Parker ◽  
Bronwyn Loong

A high prevalence of menstrual disturbance has been reported among teenage girls, and research shows that there are delays in diagnosis of endometriosis among young girls. Using data from the Menstrual Disorder of Teenagers Survey (administered in 2005 and 2016), we propose a Gaussian copula model with graphical lasso prior to identify cohort differences in menstrual characteristics and to predict endometriosis. The model includes random effects to account for clustering by school, and we use the extended rank likelihood copula model to handle variables of mixed-type. The graphical lasso prior shrinks the elements in the precision matrix of a Gaussian distribution to encourage a sparse graphical structure, where the level of shrinkage is adaptable based on the strength of the conditional associations among questions in the survey. Applying our proposed model to the menstrual disorder data set, we found that menstrual disturbance was more pronouncedly reported over a decade, and we found some empirical differences between those girls with higher risk of developing endometriosis and the general population.

2021 ◽  
Mohsen Tabasi ◽  
Marziye Farsimadan ◽  
Hamidreza Iranpour ◽  
Fezzeh Elyasinia ◽  
Mohammad Reza Yazdannasab ◽  

Abstract The outcome of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), one of the most common bariatric surgery (BS) procedure, may differ depending on the patient’s age, gender, preoperative BMI. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LSG technique on weight loss, obesity-associated co-morbidities and complications in patients undergoing LSG over three months and one year, regarding their age, gender, and BMI. The LSG associated complications in participants regarding their preoperative BMI (<39.9 and >39.9), age (30-40 and 40-50), and gender were assessed after 2 3 and 12 months. Besides, the remission and improvement rates of comorbid conditions in patients were examined after 12 months of LSG. Our results showed that LSG led to a significant weight loss in the resolution of obesity-associated co-morbidities and different complications after one year. No significant difference was found in the improvement and the resolution of obesity-associated co-morbidities according to gender. Also, the class 3 patients had significantly higher rates of hearing loss after 12 months and had higher levels of depression and brittle nails three months after the surgery. The younger patients also showed a significantly higher percentage of dry skin, intolerance to bread, and menstrual disorder compared to the older group.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0
Nina Sutresna ◽  
Pipit Pitriani ◽  
Yudi Nurcahya ◽  
Surdiniaty Ugelta ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 119-134
Azlan Ahmad Kamal ◽  
Zarizi Ab Rahman ◽  
Heldora Thomas

The purpose of this study is to study whether the menstrual disorder have impact on quality of life among female students which focus on physical and health education students from semester 1 until semester 8 in Uitm Puncak Alam, Selangor. The study was conducted to clarify the types of menstrual disorder among female students. The study also was aimed to identify the symptoms of menstrual disorder experience among female students before and during their menstruation and to determine the effect of menstrual disorder among female students towards their quality of life. Data from 74 respondents were used for the statistical analysis. The data were collected by using non purposive sampling. Questionnaires were used to obtain data for this study and the data for this study were analysed by using Microsoft Excel Software. Results showed that, menstrual disorder give impacts towards female quality of life. Future research should emphasize on other scope of study and more research about menstrual disorder may help organization to increase their performance and knowledge about female and their menstruation. Keywords: menstrual disorder, female students and effects, quality of life

2021 ◽  
Naoko Komura ◽  
Seiji Mabuchi ◽  
Kenjiro Sawada ◽  
Yukihiro Nishio ◽  
Tadashi Kimura ◽  

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