female athletes
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Retos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 44 ◽  
pp. 763-773
Alba Adá Lameiras ◽  
Yolanda Rodríguez-Castro

  Twitter se ha convertido en un nuevo canal de comunicación en el que se comparte gran cantidad de información deportiva, sobre todo, entre las personas más jóvenes. Jóvenes que forman su identidad de género a través de los mensajes que reciben, por lo tanto, se considera de suma importancia analizar cómo son representadas las mujeres en los medios deportivos en España en sus cuentas de Twitter. ¿Refuerzan los estereotipos o comunican desde una perspectiva igualitaria? A través de una metodología cualitativa se analizan las imágenes publicadas sobre mujeres durante 6 meses (marzo a agosto de 2016), en cuatro medios deportivos españoles (@ElPaís_Deportes, @ABC_Deportes, @Marca y @MundoDeportivo). Los resultados muestran cómo los estereotipos y la objetivización de las mujeres se están trasladando de las mujeres deportistas a las no deportistas. En definitiva, la desigualdad se mantiene en Twitter, aunque de forma más encubierta influyendo en la percepción que tiene la sociedad sobre los roles de género en el deporte y la importancia de las deportistas en la sociedad actual.  Abstract. Twitter has become a new communication channel in which a large amount of sports information is shared, especially among younger people. Younger generations form their gender identity through the messages they receive, therefore, it is of utmost importance to analyse how women are being represented within the Spanish sports media Twitter accounts. Do they reinforce stereotypes or do they communicate from an egalitarian perspective? Through a qualitative methodology, the images published about women during 6 months (March to August 2016), of four Spanish sports media accounts (@ElPaís_Deportes, @ABC_Deportes, @Marca and @MundoDeportivo) are analysed. The results show how stereotypes and objectification of women are moving from female athletes to non-athletes. Ultimately, inequality remains on Twitter, although in a more covert way, influencing society's perception of gender roles in sport and the importance of female athletes in today's society.

Celina de Borja ◽  
Cindy J. Chang ◽  
Rhonda Watkins ◽  
Carlin Senter

Abstract Purpose of Review The exponential growth of women participating in competitive sports throughout the years was made possible through several initiatives by the International Olympic Committee and the passage and implementation of Title IX as a federal law in the United States. However, this positive trend towards gender equity in sports has not transpired for women in medicine, especially in fields that care for elite athletes. This current review will discuss specific areas that can be tailored to help female athletes prevent injuries and optimize their athletic performance. We will also highlight how increased female team physician representation in sports may help optimize care for female athletes. Recent Findings Female athletes are considered high risk for certain conditions such as ACL tears, patellofemoral pain syndrome, bone stress injuries, sport-related concussions, and sexual violence in sport. Addressing factors specific to female athletes has been found to be valuable in preventing injuries. Strength and conditioning can optimize athletic performance but remains underutilized among female athletes. Although diversity in healthcare workforce has been found to be beneficial for multiple reasons, women remain underrepresented in sports medicine. Increasing female team physician representation may positively impact care for female athletes. Summary Team physicians must understand the physiologic, biomechanical, and anatomic factors that are unique to female athletes in order to tailor injury prevention programs and optimize their athletic performance. Advocating for gender equity in sports medicine to advance representation of women in the field will increase workforce diversity and promote excellence in sports medicine care.

2022 ◽  
Silvia Giagio ◽  
Andrea Turolla ◽  
Tiziano Innocenti ◽  
Stefano Salvioli ◽  
Giulia Gava ◽  

Background/aim: Several epidemiological studies have found a high prevalence of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction (PFD) among female athletes. However, according to several authors, these data could even be underestimated, both in research and clinical practice. Screening for potential PFD is often delayed and risk factors are not often evaluated. As a consequence, withdrawal from sport, negative influence on performance, worsening symptoms and unrecognized diagnosis may occur. The aim of our research is to develop a screening tool for pelvic floor dysfunction in female athletes useful for clinicians (musculoskeletal/sport physiotherapists, sports medicine physicians, team physicians) to guide referral to a PFD expert (e.g. pelvic floor/women's health physiotherapist, gynecologist, uro-gynecologist, urologist). Methods: A 2-round modified Delphi study will be conducted to ascertain expert opinion on which combination of variables and risk factors should be included in the screening tool. Conclusion: The implementation of the present screening tool into clinical practice may facilitate the referral to a PFD expert for further assessment of the pelvic floor and therefore, to identify potential dysfunction and, eventually, the related treatment pathway.

2022 ◽  
pp. 152700252110595
René Böheim ◽  
Mario Lackner ◽  
Wilhelm Wagner

We investigate the risk-taking behavior of women and men in high-stakes jumping competitions. Results indicated that female and male athletes differ in the timing and extent of their reactions to an increase in the risk of failure. Male competitors increased risk-taking in the more risky environment immediately after the changes. Female athletes, however, increased risk-taking two years after the rule change. Over time, female athletes revert to pre-reform risk-taking levels, and male athletes’ continued to make more risky decisions in the new environment. We attribute our findings to gender differences in competitiveness and risk preferences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Michael Barth ◽  
Hans-Peter Platzer ◽  
Carina Andrea Forstinger ◽  
Gunnar Innerhofer ◽  
Anton Giger ◽  

Abstract Background To increase safety in elite alpine ski racing Injury Surveillance Systems were implemented and preventive measures introduced. However, studies analysing the change in athletes’ injury risk by controlling for their exposure are still scarce. Objectives This study aimed to describe and analyse the risk of in-competition severe injury events (SIEcomp) in elite alpine ski racing. Methods Data recorded in the Austrian Ski Federation’s Injury Surveillance System were used to analyse the SIEcomp incidence. Information on athletes’ competition exposure was obtained from the official website of the International Ski Federation. In 23 seasons, 2333 skier seasons were recorded for the Austrian Ski Team. Within a total of 114,531 runs 169 SIEcomp occurred. Generalised Estimating Equation for Poisson Regressions were applied. Results The SIEcomp incidence per 1000 runs was 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26–1.73] for elite alpine ski racers and 2.21 (95% CI 1.79–2.75) for the subgroup of World Cup racers. A significant sex difference was detected for the subgroup of junior racers with a higher risk for female athletes [risk ratio (RR): 2.97, 95% CI 1.46–6.05]. Between the seasons of 1997 and 2020, the seasonal SIEcomp incidence increased by a factor of 2.67 for elite alpine ski racers and 3.53 for World Cup racers. Downhill (2.75, 95% CI 2.18–3.47) had the highest SIEcomp incidence, followed by super-G (1.94, 95% CI 1.30–2.88), giant slalom (1.40, 95% CI 1.06–1.85), and slalom (0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.96). Conclusion Although many preventive measures have been implemented in elite alpine ski racing, the risk of SIEcomp has increased over the last two decades.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262507
Takaki Yamagishi ◽  
Akira Saito ◽  
Yasuo Kawakami

This study sought to determine whether lower extremity muscle size, power and strength could be a determinant of whole-body maximal aerobic performance in athletes. 20 male and 19 female young athletes (18 ± 4 years) from various sporting disciplines participated in this study. All athletes performed a continuous ramp-incremental cycling to exhaustion for the determination of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak: the highest V˙O2 over a 15-s period) and maximal power output (MPO: power output corresponding to V˙O2peak). Axial scanning of the right leg was performed with magnetic resonance imaging, and anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring muscles at 50% of thigh length were measured. Moreover, bilateral leg extension power and unilateral isometric knee extension and flexion torque were determined. All variables were normalised to body mass, and six independent variables (V˙O2peak, CSAs of thigh muscles, leg extension power and knee extension and flexion torque) were entered into a forward stepwise multiple regression model with MPO being dependent variable for males and females separately. In the males, V˙O2peak was chosen as the single predictor of MPO explaining 78% of the variance. In the females, MPO was attributed to, in the order of importance, V˙O2peak (p < 0.001) and the CSA of QF (p = 0.011) accounting for 84% of the variance. This study suggests that while oxygen transport capacity is the main determinant of MPO regardless of sex, thigh muscle size also has a role in whole-body maximal aerobic performance in female athletes.

Daniel P. Longman ◽  
Viviane Merzbach ◽  
Jorge Marques Pinto ◽  
Laura Hope Atkinson ◽  
Jonathan C. K. Wells ◽  

Abstract Objective A suite of adaptations facilitating endurance running (ER) evolved within the hominin lineage. This may have improved our ability to reach scavenging sites before competitors, or to hunt prey over long distances. Running economy (RE) is a key determinant of endurance running performance, and depends largely on the magnitude of force required to support body mass. However, numerous environmental factors influence body mass, thereby significantly affecting RE. This study tested the hypothesis that alternative metabolic strategies may have emerged to enable ER in individuals with larger body mass and poor RE. Methods A cohort of male (n = 25) and female (n = 19) ultra-endurance runners completed submaximal and exhaustive treadmill protocols to determine RE, and V̇O2Max. Results Body mass was positively associated with sub-maximal oxygen consumption at both LT1 (male r=0.66, p<0.001; female LT1 r=0.23, p=0.177) and LT2 (male r=0.59, p=0.001; female r=0.23, p=0.183) and also with V̇O2Max (male r=0.60, p=0.001; female r=0.41, p=0.046). Additionally, sub-maximal oxygen consumption varied positively with V̇O2Max in both male (LT1 r=0.54, p=0.003; LT2 r=0.77, p<0.001) and female athletes (LT1 r=0.88, p<0.001; LT2 r=0.92, p<0.001). Conclusions The results suggest that, while individuals with low mass and good RE can glide economically as they run, larger individuals can compensate for the negative effects their mass has on RE by increasing their capacity to consume oxygen. The elevated energy expenditure of this low-economy high-energy turnover approach to ER may bring costs associated with energy diversion away from other physiological processes, however.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Sebastian Kaufmann ◽  
Martin Ziegler ◽  
Jana Werner ◽  
Christine Noe ◽  
Richard Latzel ◽  

Abstract Background Artistic gymnastics is a popular Olympic discipline where female athletes compete in four and male athletes in six events with floor exercise having the longest competition duration in Women’s and Men’s artistic gymnastics (WAG, MAG). To date no valid information on the energetics of floor gymnastics is available although this may be important for specific conditioning programming. This study evaluated the metabolic profile of a simulated floor competition in sub-elite gymnasts. Methods 17 (9 male, 8 female) sub-elite gymnasts aged 22.5 ± 2.6y took part in a floor-training-competition where oxygen uptake was measured during and until 15 min post-exercise. Additionally, resting and peak blood lactate concentration after exercise were obtained. The PCr-LA-O2 method was used to calculate the metabolic energy and the relative aerobic (WAER), anaerobic alactic (WPCr) and anaerobic lactic (WBLC) energy contribution. Further, the athletes completed a 30 s Bosco-jumping test, a countermovement jump and a drop jump. Results The competition scores were 9.2 (CI:8.9–9.3) in WAG and 10.6 (CI:10.4–10.9) in MAG. The metabolic profile of the floor routine was mainly aerobic (58.9%, CI: 56.0–61.8%) followed by the anaerobic alactic (24.2%, CI: 21.3–27.1%) and anaerobic lactic shares (16.9%, CI:14.9–18.8%). While sex had a significant (p = .010, d = 1.207) large effect on energy contribution, this was not the case for competition duration (p = .728, d = 0.061). Relative energy contribution of WAG and MAG differed in WAER (64.0 ± 4.7% vs. 54.4 ± 6.8%, p = .004, d = 1.739) but not in WPCr (21.3 ± 6.1% vs. 26.7 ± 8.0%, p = .144, d = 0.801) and WBLC (14.7 ± 5.4% vs. 18.9 ± 4.2%, p = .085, d = 0.954). Further no correlation between any energy share and performance was found but between WPCr and training experience (r = .680, p = .044) and WBLC and competition level (r = .668, p = .049). Conclusion The results show a predominant aerobic energy contribution and a considerable anaerobic contribution with no significant difference between anaerobic shares. Consequently, gymnastic specific aerobic training should not be neglected, while a different aerobic share in WAG and MAG strengthens sex-specific conditioning. All in all, the specific metabolic share must secure adequate energy provision, while relative proportions of the two anaerobic pathways seem to depend on training and competition history.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 557
Alessandro de Sire ◽  
Andrea Demeco ◽  
Nicola Marotta ◽  
Riccardo Spanò ◽  
Claudio Curci ◽  

COVID-19 athletes reported persistent and residual symptoms many weeks after initial infection, including cough, fatigue, and neuromuscular disorders. Poor neuromuscular control may cause inefficient movement strategies increasing anterior cruciate ligament load. This is particularly relevant in female athletes, who show a 3-time higher risk than male counterparts. Aim is to evaluate the impairment in thigh muscles activation, body composition, and physical performance after COVID-19 in volleyball athletes. We recruited a cohort of female professional players from the same team. We assessed the pre-activation time of Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Medialis (VM), Medial Hamstring (MH), and Lateral Hamstring (LH) before (T0) and after (T1) COVID-19 infection, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and jump tests. We included 12 athletes with COVID-19 infection diagnosis in January 2021. At T1 we found a significant (p < 0.05) delay (ms) of the activation time of RF (426 ± 188 vs. 152 ± 106); VM (363 ± 192 vs. 140 ± 96); BF (229 ± 60 vs. 150 ± 63); MH (231 ± 88 vs. 203 ± 89), and a significant reduction of body composition at BIA. The neuromotor imbalance of the knee stabilizer muscle in female athletes after COVID-19 infection determines a deficit of knee stabilization. Physicians should consider neuromuscular and metabolic sequelae to identify athletes at higher risk of injury and set up specific neuromuscular rehabilitation protocols.

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