In this paper, the short-circuit robustness of 1200 V silicon carbide (SiC) trench MOSFETs with different gate structures has been investigated. The MOSFETs exhibited different failure modes under different DC bus voltages. For double trench SiC MOSFETs, failure modes are gate failure at lower dc bus voltages and thermal runaway at higher dc bus voltages, while failure modes for asymmetric trench SiC MOSFETs are soft failure and thermal runaway, respectively. The shortcircuit withstanding time (SCWT) of the asymmetric trench MOSFET is higher than that of the double trench MOSFETs. The thermal and mechanical stresses inside the devices during the short-circuit tests have been simulated to probe into the failure mechanisms and reveal the impact of the device structures on the device reliability. Finally, post-failure analysis has been carried out to verify the root causes of the device failure.
This paper presents a method to extend the DC bus utilization on an induction motor (IM) by using a combination of Space-Vector Modulated Direct Torque Control (DTC–SVM) and conventional DTC. The scheme proposed in this paper exploits the advantages of both control methods. During the linear region, it allows for a low torque ripple and low current harmonic distortion (THD). During the overmodulation region, it allows for the fastest torque response up to the six-step operation region. In both regions, there is complete independence of the motor parameters. The paper describes a way to provide a smooth transition between the two control schemes. Non-linearities affect the stator flux angle estimation, which leads to the inability to decouple torque and flux. To overcome this problem, a novel PI-based control scheme as well as a simplification on the decoupling terms’ calculation are proposed. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.
The topology and management of a sustainable dual-bus, AC and DC, microgrid designed to operate connected to a weak grid is presented. AC+DC hybrid microgrids are a robust and cost-competitive solution for poorly connected areas, as can be found in rural or island electrification. The versatile microgrid proposed in this work is developed around a wind turbine based on a particular induction generator with double stator winding and squirrel cage rotor (DWIG). This singular generator is especially suitable for a combined AC+DC coupled microgrid application. One of its stator windings is coupled to the DC bus via a controlled AC/DC converter. The other is directly connected to the AC bus, only during the periods of abundant wind resource. The DWIG is complemented with photovoltaic panels and a hybrid energy storage system, comprising flow batteries assisted by supercapacitors, which converge to the DC Bus. The DC bus exchanges power with the AC bus through an interlinking inverter. The article describes the topology and details the operation of its Supervisory Control system, which gives rise to the five operating modes of the proposed AC+DC DWIG based microgrid. Its performance under different generation conditions and load regimes is thoroughly assessed by simulation.
The need for environmental protection is pushing to a massive introduction of energy production from renewables. Although wind and solar energy present the most mature technologies for energy generation, wave energy has a huge annual energy potential not exploited yet. Indeed, no leading device for wave energy conversion has already been developed. Hence, the future exploitation of wave energy will be strictly related to a specific infrastructure for power distribution and transmission that has to satisfy high requirements to guarantee grid safety and stability, because of the stochastic nature of this source. To this end, an electrical architecture model, based on a common DC bus topology and including a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) composed by Li-ion battery and flywheel coupled to a wave energy converter, is here presented. In detail, this research work wants to investigate the beneficial effects in terms of voltage and current waveforms frequency and transient behavior at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) introduced by HESS under specific stressful production conditions. Specifically, in the defined simulation scenarios it is demonstrated that the peak value of the voltage wave frequency at the PCC is reduced by 64% to 80% with a faster stabilization in the case of HESS with respect to storage absence, reaching the set value (50 Hz) in a shorter time (by −10% to −42%). Therefore, HESS integration in wave energy converters can strongly reduce safety and stability issues of the main grid relating to intermittent and fluctuating wave production, significantly increasing the tolerance to the expected increasing share of electricity from renewable energy sources.
The problems of modeling in the Matlab environment the modes of the MHD-stirring of aluminum melt in furnaces, taking into account the distribution network. It is noted that the operation of frequency inverters of the power supply system sharply complicates the electromagnetic environment in a network of limited power. It is proposed to apply a complex of models to assess the possibility of reducing the distortion of the network currents by modifying the rectifier control algorithms, while maintaining the stability of the DC bus of the frequency converter.
Modern vehicles have increased functioning necessities, including more energy/power, storage for recovering decelerating energy, start/stop criteria, etc. However, lead-acid batteries (LABs) possess a shorter lifetime than lithium-ion and supercapacitors energy storage systems. The use of LABs harms the operation of transport vehicles. Therefore, this research paper pursues to improve the operating performance of LABs in association with their lifetime. Integrated LAB and supercapacitor improve the battery lifetime and efficiently provide for transport vehicles’ operational requirements and implementation. The study adopts an active-parallel topology approach to hybridise LAB and supercapacitor. A fully active-parallel topology structure comprises two DC-to-DC conversion systems. LAB and supercapacitor are connected as inputs to these converters to allow effective and easy control of energy and power. A cascaded proportional integrate-derivative (PID) controller regulates the DC-to-DC converters to manage the charge/release of combined energy storage systems. The PID controls energy share between energy storage systems, hence assisting in enhancing LAB lifetime. The study presents two case studies, including the sole battery application using different capacities, and the second, by combining a battery with a supercapacitor of varying capacity sizes. A simulation software tool, Matlab/Simulink, is used to develop the model and validate the results of the system. The simulation outcomes show that the battery alone cannot serve the typical transport vehicle (TV) requirements. The battery and output voltage of the DC-to-DC conversion systems stabilises at 12 V, which ensures consistent DC bus link voltage. The energy storage (battery) state-of-charge (SoC) is reserved in the range of 90% to 96%, thus increasing its lifespan by 8200 cycles. The battery is kept at the desired voltage to supply all connected loads on the DC bus at rated device voltage. The fully active topology model for hybrid LAB and supercapacitor provides a complete degree of control for individual energy sources, thus allowing the energy storage systems to operate as they prefer.