Paper Production
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Viktor Ploskonos ◽  
Anna Gondovska

The use of waste paper as a fibrous semi-finished product in the production of paper and paperboard products makes it possible to somewhat reduce the consumption of cellulose. However, waste paper contains a number of water-polluting components of mineral and organic nature, which were introduced into its composition at the stage of production. One of the issues that may arise in the design of technological systems for the production of a given type of paper or cardboard or in the reconstruction of existing production to reduce losses of fibrous semi-finished products and ensure their optimal use or reduce fresh water consumption is to calculate the pollution and also to determine the impact of cardboard and paper production tanks and treatment plants on the dynamics and level of watercourse pollution. To study and analyze the paper and cardboard production processes, which belong to the class of complex technological systems, a methodology was developed that, using computer technology, allows assessing the state of a technological system until its implementation in action. However, from a practical point of view, methods still should be developed that will allow the designer to find solutions to problems that may arise at the design stage of the technological system for production of a given type of paper or cardboard or in the reconstruction of existing production. These problems are related to the calculation of the pollution level and the determination of impact from cardboard and paper production tanks and treatment facilities. The purpose of this article is to conduct research and forecast calculations based on mathematical models to determine the patterns of influence exerted by tanks on the dynamics and level of watercourse pollution in the production of paper and cardboard. The generalized technological system of cardboard production, which is presented in the form of a material flow graph, is taken as an object for research. Water-soluble contaminants of mineral and organic nature enter the production system together with fibrous raw materials, partly with fresh water, and with chemical additives used to impart certain qualities to the product at the stage of its production and at the stage of mechano-chemical water purification. In order to study their impact, it is necessary to conduct at least two stages of calculations on a personal computer using pre-designed models for the dynamics and level of watercourse pollution. At the first stage, the dynamic characteristics of each element of the technological system were equated to elements that do not have a dynamic delay and for which the passage of all watercourses is subject to the speed at which the cardboard web is cast on the mesh. The number of cycles before equilibrium is 99. In the second stage of calculations, it was taken into account that the four tanks in the technological system of production are characterized by a moment of delay and, therefore, the values ​​of delay factors were chosen based on water reserves that accumulate in these basins. The number of cycles before equilibrium in the second stage increased to 264. The main conclusion from the analysis of two options: the technological system in both cases goes to equilibrium at equal values ​​for all components of water-soluble mineral and organic components. However, there are often situations when, in the process of developing (designing) a complex technological system for the production of paper or cardboard, developers are interested in the weighted average concentration of water-soluble mineral components that most affect the state of water flows, and then the technological system can be simplified and presented as a single container linked to the environment. Analysis of the calculation formula of the time for the technological system to reach equilibrium shows that the time value is largely determined by the ratio of the water capacity (W) of the process system to the amount of water (BS) removed from the system. The greater the water capacity of the technological system and the smaller the BS, the longer the time the technological system reaches equilibrium. The next step of the study is to verify the results obtained on the basis of adequate mathematical models in actual production conditions.

2021 ◽  
Michael Schwarze ◽  
Tabea Thiel ◽  
Minoo Tasbihi ◽  
Michael Schroeter ◽  
Prashanth W. Menezes ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Emine Arman Kandirmaz ◽  
Arif Ozcan ◽  
Elif Ural

Abstract Paper is an environmentally friendly, recyclable material whose main material is cellulose, which can be obtained from all kinds of trees and plants, used as writing, printing and packaging material. Due to its structural properties, papers are not resistant to temperature and humidity, as well as problems with ink transfer with its porous structure and experienced negative printability properties. In recent years, especially the growth of the packaging industry has increased the demand for papers with improved printability properties. In order to obtain better printability properties from papers, some processes can be performed in paper production, as well as some surface treatments after production. These processes are paper coating, sizing and calendering. Paper coatings are generally water-dispersed coating solutions with one or more pigments, binders and certain additives to improve the desired properties. With these processes, by filling the gaps between the pores of the paper, a shapely and smooth surface is obtained and good printability is obtained together with the optical and physical properties of the papers. In this study, the interactions and printability properties of different types of pigments with xanthan gum binder were investigated by preparing paper coating formulations using calcium carbonate, barite and talc pigments and xanthan gum as binder. As a result, xanthan is a good coating binder and CaCO 3 {\mathrm{CaCO}_{3}} from the compared pigments is the most suitable compared to the other 2 pigments, considering all the studied areas.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (16) ◽  
pp. 9069
Emily Overturf ◽  
Simon Pezzutto ◽  
Martina Boschiero ◽  
Nicoletta Ravasio ◽  
Achille Monegato

Coffee silverskin (CSS) is one of the main byproducts of coffee roasting and poses a potential risk to the environment if disposed of incorrectly. Each year in Italy, over 500,000 tonnes of green coffee are imported for roasting followed by consumption or export. This results in over 7500 tonnes of CSS produced each year which is typically disposed of as solid waste. Silverskin contains lignocellulose and can be used as a substitute for other raw materials to produce paper pulp. Both Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) were performed to compare the impact and cost of CSS paper production to conventional paper production using only virgin pulp. It was shown that the addition of CSS reduces the environmental impact of paper production by 10% and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 13% compared to conventional production with no cost increase (0.01% reduction with addition of CSS) for the producer. The results of this case study show that the utilization of CSS for paper production at the national level in Italy represents a suitable example of circular economy (CE).

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (3) ◽  
pp. 661
Adefemi Adeodu ◽  
Mukondeleli Grace Kanakana-Katumba ◽  
Maladzhi Rendani

Purpose: This study aimed at implementing lean six sigma to evaluate the productivity and manufacturing waste in the production line of a paper companyMethodology/Approach: The study is a case study in nature. The method illustrates how lean six sigma (LSS) is used to evaluate the existing production process in a paper production company with focus on productivity and manufacturing waste. The study considered a real-time problem of customer’s dissatisfaction. The gathered data is based on machine functionality (up time, down time and cycle time); materials and labour flow at every process stages of the production line. The optimization of the production process was based on lean tools like value stream mapping, process cycle efficiency, Kaizen, 5S and pareto chartFindings: Based on lean six sigma application, it was discovered that the present production performance was below standard and more manufacturing wastes were generated. The present productivity and manufacturing wastes are reported as low process cycle efficiency (23.4 %), low takt time (4.11 sec), high lead time (43200sec), high number of products not conforming to six sigma values, high down time (32.64 %) and excess labour flow (33). After the implementation of the lean six sigma tools for certain period of time, there are lots of improvements in the production line in terms of all the parameters considered.Research Limitation/ Implications:  The study has demonstrated an application of lean six sigma in the case of solving real-time problems of productivity and manufacturing wastes which have a direct implication on customer’s satisfaction. The lesson learned and implications presented can still be further modeled using some lean based software for validityOriginality/Value: The study has contributed to the body of knowledge in the field of LSS with focus to process based manufacturing, unlike most literature in the field concentrate more on discrete based manufacturing.   

John Odhiambo Otieno ◽  
Treezer Nelly Okumu ◽  
Morelly Adalla ◽  
Fredrick Ogutu ◽  
Boniface Oure

The pulp and paper industry is primarily dependent on fibrous wood for pulp and paper production. However, this over-dependence on fibrous wood poses serious environmental challenges such as the diminishing of the fibrous wood stocks, deforestation, emission of greenhouse gases, and global warming. Therefore, to mitigate these environmental challenges associated with its utilization for paper and pulp production, other sustainable raw material sources can also be considered for the production of paper and pulp. There are enormous benefits associated with the utilization of non-wood fibres as an alternative and sustainable raw materials source for the production of paper and pulp. These benefits have in the recent past prompted millers in China, India, Brazil, and the USA to consider the utilization of non-wood fibres in paper and pulp production. In Kenya, the pulp and paper industry is very much dependent on fibrous wood for production and the industry is yet to fully embrace the utilization of nonwood fibres for paper and pulp production. Further, the dependence on fibrous wood has contributed significantly to the decline of paper pulp and paper production, deforestation, and rise in paper importations due to insufficient raw material supplies. The importation of paper and pulp products has further led to the collapse of the paper industry in Kenya. The sector stands a chance of revival and vibrancy through the utilization of the abundant agricultural residues and feedstocks lying in the agricultural fields across the country. Similar experiences elsewhere have proved that the abundance of agricultural waste can be utilized for the production of paper and pulp due to their excellent fibre content for specialty papers, and easy pulpability. The agricultural residues are therefore considered a quintessential alternative and sustainable source of raw materials for the pulp and paper industry. Moreover, their utilization will mitigate environmental impacts such as deforestation, climate change, and pollution .

Ali, Hassana Oseiwu ◽  
Orumbe, Seth Obafemi

This research is an analysis of quality control process on paper production on the soft roll production process of Bel Papyrus Ltd located in Ogba, Lagos State, Nigeria. The research was done with the aim of determining the conformity of the industry’s product to quality standard, identifying and eliminating the possible causes of variation in their production process, with reference to Percentage Elongation. The researchers used primary data in form of periodic laboratory test result done on soft rolls.Data presentations were made using simple statistical tools like Mean, Ranges, Standard Deviations, and Tables reflecting the primary data obtained at equal interval of production. The researchers made use of variable control charts for the purpose of analysis. The

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (13) ◽  
pp. 3673
Kateřina Hájková ◽  
Jiří Bouček ◽  
Petr Procházka ◽  
Petr Kalous ◽  
Dominik Budský

Because there is a lack of wood resources in many countries, this work focused on pulp and paper production from the waste and agricultural residues of non-wood plants. The work aimed to pulp the nitrate-alkaline of black mustard (Brassica Nigra L.) and camelina (Camelina Sativa L.). The black mustard and the camelina were selected due to the expanding planted areas of these crops in the Czech Republic. To characterize the chemical composition of black mustard and camelina, cellulose, lignin, ash, and extractives were determined. Raw alpha-cellulose, beta-cellulose, and gamma-cellulose were also measured. The results showed that the content of lignin in non-wood plants is lower than that in softwoods. The cooked pulp was characterized by the delignification degree–Kappa number. Additionally, handsheet papers were made for selected samples of pulp. The handsheet papers were characterized by tensile index, breaking length, and smoothness and compared with commonly available papers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 511-516
E. T. Tembe ◽  
David Oriabure Ekhuemelo ◽  
B. T. Aondoaver

The fibre characteristics of five Spondia mombin stands were studied to determine their suitability for pulp and paper production. Wood slivers obtained parallel to grain at three (3) different positions along the bole were macerated in combined identical amounts of glacial acetic acid plus hydrogen peroxide under heat at between 80-100o C. Macerated fibres were washed clean of mixture and mounted on slide for microscopic examination of fibre characteristics. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was employed for the experiment. Data were analysed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) while, the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to separate means of significant differences among the treatments. Results show that significant differences existed in fibre characteristic of sampled trees, however the fibre length ranged from 0.98-1.0 mm, fibre diameter (18.22-21.47 um), lumen width (10.90-12.98 um) and cell wall thickness (3.86-4.60 um). Significant differences were also observed among the derived fibre characteristics, the Runkel ratio ranged from 0.66-8.89, elasticity coefficient (57.22-60.50 %), coefficient of rigidity (19.78-22.24 %), slenderness ratio (43.27-46.5). This implied that, the fibres of S. mombin were short and elastic which make the wood species an appropriate raw material for pulp and paper making especially when blended with other long fibre species.

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