Facial Region
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2021 ◽  
Toni Kasole Lubala ◽  
Tony Kayembe-Kitenge ◽  
Gerrye Mubungu ◽  
Aimé Lumaka ◽  
Gray Kanteng ◽  

Abstract Background Computer-aided software such as the facial image diagnostic aid (FIDA) and Face2Gene has been developed to perform pattern recognition of facial features with promising clinical results. The aim of this study was to test Face2Gene's recognition performance on Bantu Congolese subjects with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as compared to Congolese subjects with intellectual disability but without FXS (non-FXS). Method Frontal facial photograph from 156 participants (14 patients with FXS and 142 controls) were uploaded. Automated face analysis was conducted by using the technology used in proprietary software tools called Face2Gene CLINIC and Face2Gene RESEARCH (version 17.6.2). To estimate the statistical power of the Face2Gene technology in distinguishing affected individuals from controls, a cross validation scheme was used. Results The similarity seen in the upper facial region (of males and females) is greater than the similarity seen in other parts of the face. Binary comparison of FXS subjects versus subjects with ID negative for Fragile X syndrome and FXS subjects versus subjects with Down syndrome reveal an area under the curve values of 0.955 (p=0.002) and 0.986 (p=0.003). Conclusion The Face2Gene algorithm is separating well between FXS and Non-FXS subjects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
pp. ec03035
Rodrigo Santos-Rodrigues ◽  
Ricardo Bassini-Silva ◽  
Matheus Huang-Bastos ◽  
Karine M. de Q. Araujo ◽  
Flavia C. G. De Carvalho ◽  

Chiggers are ectoparasites and can cause severe dermatitis in their hosts, known as trombiculiasis. Besides that, these mites can be vectors of bacteria of the genus Orientia, in various regions of the world. The genera Eutrombicula Ewing, 1938 is currently represented by more than 80 species worldwide. Species of this genus are recorded parasitizing reptiles, birds, and mammals. One of this species, Eutrombicula daemoni Bassini-Silva & Jacinavicius, 2018 was recently described causing trombiculiasis in a dog. Our goal is to report a new case of a dog’s trombiculiasis, including a new locality record for E. daemoni in Brazil. In May 2021, a female Shih-Tzu dog with three years old and with access to the forest of the Santa Tereza municipality, southeastern Brazil, sought veterinary medical attention for intense itching and erythema in the facial region. Mites were collected directly from the face of the dog. These materials were slide-mounted and deposited in the Acarological Collection of the Butantan Institute (IBSP). The material extracted from the dog was examined and identified as E. daemoni. Part of the fixation site tissue of the dog was collected, showing the feeding tube produced by the enzymatic reaction of saliva by the mite, known as a stylostome. In this report, we emphasize the occurrence of trombiculiasis in domestic animals that have access to forest regions, places that unfed chigger larvae live. Additionally, this record represents a new locality record for E. daemoni to the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Pankaj Taneja ◽  
Lene Baad-Hansen ◽  
Sumaiya Shaikh ◽  
Peter Svensson ◽  
Håkan Olausson

Background: Slow stroking touch is generally perceived as pleasant and reduces thermal pain. However, the tactile stimuli applied tend to be short-lasting and typically applied to the forearm. This study aimed to compare the effects of a long-lasting brushing stimulus applied to the facial region and the forearm on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) taken on the hand. Outcome measurements were touch satiety and concurrent mechanical pain thresholds of the hand.Methods: A total of 24 participants were recruited and randomized to receive continuous stroking, utilizing a robotic stimulator, at C-tactile (CT) favorable (3 cm/s) and non-favorable (30 cm/s) velocities applied to the right face or forearm. Ratings of touch pleasantness and unpleasantness and PPTs from the hypothenar muscle of the right hand were collected at the start of stroking and once per minute for 5 min.Results: A reduction in PPTs (increased pain sensitivity) was observed over time (P < 0.001). However, the increase in pain sensitivity was less prominent when the face was stroked compared to the forearm (P = 0.001). Continuous stroking resulted in a significant interaction between region and time (P = 0.008) on pleasantness ratings, with a decline in ratings observed over time for the forearm, but not on the face. Unpleasantness ratings were generally low.Conclusion: We observed touch satiety for 5 min of continuous robotic brushing on the forearm confirming previous studies. However, we did not observe any touch satiety for brushing the face. Mechanical pain sensitivity, measured in the hand, increased over the 5-min period but less so when paired with brushing on the face than with brushing on the forearm. The differential effects of brushing on the face and forearm on touch satiety and pain modulation may be by the differences in the emotional relevance and neuronal pathways involved.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (3) ◽  
pp. 131-134
Sushmita Batra ◽  
Surabhi Singhai ◽  
Pramod Krishna B ◽  
Rajdeep Singh ◽  
Sushant Soni

Maxillofacial trauma is any physical trauma to the facial region, commonly encountered by maxillofacial surgeons, and is often associated with high morbidity and so constitute quite a significant portion of the workload of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Maxillofacial injuries can occur as an isolated injury or may be associated with multiple injuries in other parts of the body. To assess the patterns, etiology, and treatment modalities of maxillofacial trauma in a teaching hospital in central India, over a 12-year period. Patients with maxillofacial trauma were identified using the department database and clinical records. 264 patients were identified with maxillofacial trauma in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery between January 2006 and December 2018. The study showed that there was a male preponderance in all age groups over female. Of the 264 patients with maxillofacial injuries, 83,33% had isolated lower face (mandibular) fractures, followed by midface fractures (10.60%) and panfacial fractures (6.06%). Road traffic accidents (87.12%) were the most common form of etiology for trauma followed by assaults (10.98%). Most trauma were treated with open reduction internal fixation (89%) than closed reduction (11%). The etiology and pattern of maxillofacial injuries reflect the trauma patterns within the community and can thus provide a guide to help design programs toward prevention and treatment.

2021 ◽  
Jaclyn Beckinghausen ◽  
Joshua Ortiz-Guzman ◽  
Tao Lin ◽  
Benjamin Bachman ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  

Thalamo-cortical networks are central to seizures, yet it's unclear how these circuits initiate the seizures. Here, we test the hypothesis that a facial region of the thalamus, the VPM, is a source of convulsive, tonic-clonic seizures. We devised an in vivo optogenetic mouse model to elicit tonic-clonic seizures by driving convergent input to the VPM. With viral tracing, we show dense cerebellar and cerebral cortical afferent input to the VPM. Lidocaine microinfusions into the cerebellar nuclei selectively block seizure initiation. We perform single-unit electrophysiology recordings during awake, convulsive seizures to define the local activity of thalamic neurons before, during, and after seizure onset. We find highly dynamic activity with biphasic properties, raising the possibility that heterogenous activity patterns promote seizures. These data reveal the VPM as a source of tonic-clonic seizures, with cerebellar input providing the predominant signals.

Georgia E. Hallett ◽  
Adam M. Holden ◽  
John Mitchard ◽  
Serryth D. Colbert

Yogashree Sonawane ◽  
Ankeeta Ahire ◽  
Ananya Saha

The study aims to identify the clinical manifestation of mucormycosis in the oro-facial region to distinguish the role of meticulous intraoral examination for early and timely diagnosis based on the review of reported cases, to propose the role of diabetes mellitus as a predisposing risk factor for mucormycosis in the oro-facial region, to propose the association of traumatic incidents like tooth extraction as a risk factor for mucormycosis in immune-compromised individuals and to perceive the use of amphotericin-B in its treatment. A systematic review was conducted on an electronic database, Google Scholar to analyze the existing data for the clinical manifestation of mucormycosis in the orofacial region. Out of the existing literature on this topic for various timelines, a period of 10 years from 2011 to 2021 was selected for the study. The sample size was calculated taking into consideration the 99.99% confidence interval. The data was extracted from these relevant articles in Microsoft Excel, showing remarkable conclusions. Mucormycosis does not show stereotypical clinical manifestations and thus the diagnosis of mucormycosis has to be confirmed through culture studies and histopathological or radiological ways. Diabetes Mellitus serves as a predisposing factor for mucormycosis in the oro-facial region other than the COVID-19 infection and immune-compromised conditions. Amphotericin-B was a drug of choice for the treatment of mucormycosis by many practitioners. The only hindrance to its usage being its nephrotoxicity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
Kishor Pandey ◽  
Anup Bastola ◽  
Gong Haiyan ◽  
Uttam Raj Pyakurel ◽  
Basu Dev Pandey ◽  

Abstract Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in 70 countries worldwide. Nepal is considered non-endemic for CL and hence the control program is targeted to visceral leishmaniasis (VL) only. Here, we report the emergence of CL cases in different parts of Nepal. Methods We analyzed the CL and VL cases reported to Epidemiology and Diseases Control Division (EDCD), Ministry of Health and Population, Nepal through District Health Information System 2 (DHIS-2) and Early Warning and Reporting System (EWRS) during the past 4 years (2016–2019). Any laboratory-confirmed case was included in the study. Demographic and clinical details of each patient were transcribed into Excel sheets, verified with the case report forms and analyzed. Results VL has been reported in Nepal since 1980, but CL was reported very recently. From 2016 to 2019, 42 CL cases were reported from 26 different hospitals to EDCD which had been diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation, and laboratory findings (demonstration of amastigotes in Giemsa-stained smears and rK39 test results). Majority of the patients (31.0%, 13/42) visited to the hospital within 1–6 months of onset of lesions. Facial region (38.1%, 16/42) was the common place where lesions were found ompared to other exposed parts of the body. CL was successfully treated with miltefosine for 28 days. The majority of CL patients did not have history of travel outside the endemic areas and there was no report of sandfly from these areas. Conclusion These evidences highlight that the Government of Nepal need to pay more efforts on CL and include it in differential diagnosis by clinicians, and plan for an active surveillance when the country is targeting leishmaniasis elimination by the year 2025 with the decreasing number of VL cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 506 (1-2) ◽  
Vu Ngoc Lam ◽  
Le Thi Thu Hai ◽  
Nguyen Phuong Tien

Autologous fat grafting is a technique that has been used for a long time in the field of plastic surgery. Besides many advantages, the complications, which can range from mild such as hematoma, infection, calcification, necrosis... even death is a big problem.  The article presents a case of using autologous fat taken from the abdomen to graft onto the facial area with complications of severe infection in both the receiving and donor sites, causing necrosis of fat and skin in both areas. The treatment takes a long time with different procedures, but the consequences for the patient are still very serious both in terms of aesthetics and function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fat grafting to the facial region for the reconstruction and aesthetic enhancement of facial contour.

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