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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 ◽  
pp. 101292
Author(s):  
Behram Wali ◽  
Lawrence D. Frank ◽  
Deborah R. Young ◽  
Richard T. Meenan ◽  
Brian E. Saelens ◽  
...  

The Breast ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 61 ◽  
pp. 22-28
Author(s):  
Marianne J. Heins ◽  
Kelly M. de Ligt ◽  
Janneke Verloop ◽  
Sabine Siesling ◽  
Joke C. Korevaar ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Fiona Yu ◽  
Alana Cavadino ◽  
Lisa Mackay ◽  
Kim Ward ◽  
Anna King ◽  
...  

PurposeLimited evidence exists regarding a group of nurses' physical activity patterns and association with resilience. Less is known about the physical activity health paradox in nurses (the positive health effects of leisure time physical activity vs the negative health effects of occupational physical activity). This study aimed to explore the profiles of intensive care nurses' physical activity behaviours and associations with resilience, following a developed study-specific job demands–recovery framework.Design/methodology/approachA cross-sectional study was conducted with intensive care unit (ICU) nurses to explore their physical activity profiles and associations with resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 25 (CD-RISC 25) was used to assess resilience, and accelerometry was utilised to record participants' four-day activity (two workdays, two non-workdays). Hierarchical cluster analysis was employed to define groups of nurses by activity behaviours.FindingsParticipants (N = 93) were classified as low actives (n = 19), standers (n = 36), sitters (n = 31) and movers (n = 7). During two 12-h shifts, movers had the highest mean level of dynamic standing and the lowest mean level of sitting. During two non-workdays, movers had the highest mean level of walking as well as the lowest mean level of sitting and sleep time.Originality/valueThe uniqueness of this study was that it analysed ICU nurses' physical activity profiles and associations with resilience using identified clusters. However, the small number of participants limited this study's ability to determine significant relationships between resilience and the grouped physical activity profiles.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Charlotta Pisinger ◽  
Sofie Kirstine Bergman Rasmussen

Abstract Background: A high prevalence of dual use (DU) of e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes has been reported across the world. In some countries most users of e-cigarettes are dual users (DUs). We wanted to investigate the health effects of DU and compare with the health effects of exclusive smoking of conventional cigarettes (ESCC). Methods: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane library. The last search was conducted on April 26, 2021. We included original articles on any topic relevant to health, in all languages. Reviewers independently assessed the main risks of bias without the use of automated tools. We followed the PRISMA guidelines. Both reviewers independently screened and read all publications. Results: Fifty-five publications (52 studies) were included, 12 of the studies were prospective. There was great heterogeneity across studies both in methodology and outcome. Several studies, especially experimental studies with short-term outcome, found higher levels of harmful substances in ESCC than in DUs, however, the two largest population-based studies, with low risk of selection-bias, found higher levels of harmful substances in DUs than in ESCC. Most studies investigating symptoms or risk of disease were large population-based surveys. One study found that DUs reported a significantly better health than ESCC, while fifteen found a higher risk of e.g., pulmonary, cardiovascular or metabolic risk factors/symptoms, self-reported general health or cancer in DUs than in ESCC. The study with the longest follow-up, six years, found that DUs had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.48 (95% confidence interval 0.81–2.70) of a possibly smoking-related disease (confirmed by hospital discharge abstracts) compared with ESCC. Many methodological weaknesses were identified, such as risk of reverse causality. We found a correlation between high tobacco consumption in DUs and findings of negative health outcomes.Conclusion: Due to many methodological weaknesses, it is difficult to draw any strong conclusions, but the results indicate that DU might be as or even more harmful than ESCC. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed. Before recommending EC for smoking cessation health authorities should consider the high risk of DU and its potential consequences.


2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 22-29
Author(s):  
Tomas Vilniškis ◽  
Andrej Naimušin ◽  
Tomas Januševičius

Transport noise is a serious problem in cities and has a negative impact on both health and economics. In addition to the aforementioned unnoticed health effects, traffic noise has also been identified as one of the leading causes of sleep disorders, annoyance and negative cardiovascular effects. This research consists of three parts: part one involves onsite measurements of traffic noise in Trakai town; part two simulates traffic noise at different average vehicle speeds; part three assesses the number of people affected by traffic noise. The carried-out simulation has demonstrated that the noise level changes very slightly at different average vehicle speeds. It should be noticed that more noise is generated at average vehicle speed of 30 km/h rather than at 50 km/h. The assessment of the annoyance level has disclosed that an average vehicle speed of 30 km/h should cause the highest level of annoyance (highest – 26.8%).


2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nur Hazirah Hisamuddin ◽  
Juliana Jalaludin

Abstract This article reviewed the published studies on the environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) among children and assessed the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) level as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs. The current knowledge of the potential health effects of increased 1-OHP in children was reviewed. Additionally, the influence of genetic polymorphism on the urinary 1-OHP level was discussed in this review. The assembled data showed that children who are attending schools or living close to industrial and polluted urban areas might have greater exposure to higher concentrations of PAHs with a higher level of urinary 1-OHP when compared to those children living in rural areas. Urinary 1-OHP may be a reliable biomarker for determining the genotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation caused by exposure to PAHs. Strong research evidence indicated that the total body burden of PAHs should be evaluated by biomonitoring of 1-OHP in line with other urinary PAHs metabolites (with 2–3 rings) to evaluate recent total exposure to PAHs. Overall, the study suggests implementing a mitigation plan to combat air pollution to provide a cleaner environment for children.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 737
Author(s):  
Anestis Karkanis ◽  
Nikolaos Polyzos ◽  
Maria Kompocholi ◽  
Spyridon A. Petropoulos

The recent market trends for functional healthy foods have rekindled the interest in wild edible species and created a market niche for high added value products. The current supply, mainly supported by plants collected from the wild, cannot meet increasing market needs; therefore, it is of major importance to establish cropping protocols and further valorize wild plants for culinary and industrial applications. Sea fennel is a wild edible halophyte that is an important ingredient in local cuisines and is also used in folk medicine for its beneficial health effects. Its valorization has not been commercially explored on a great scale and more efforts are needed to integrate the species in farming systems. The present review compiles the most recent reports regarding the farming practices that could allow for the establishment of cultivation protocols for farmers, while the main constraints that hinder the further exploitation of the species are also presented. Moreover, this review presents the most up-to-date information regarding the chemical composition (e.g., chemical composition of the aerial parts and volatile compounds in essential oils) and the health-related effects of various plant parts (e.g., antimicrobial, insecticidal and anticholinesterase activities) aiming to reveal possible alternative uses that will increase the added value of the species and will contribute to its commercial exploitation. Finally, the future remarks and the guidelines that have to be followed are also discussed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alessandra Durazzo ◽  
Barbara C. Sorkin ◽  
Massimo Lucarini ◽  
Pavel A. Gusev ◽  
Adam J. Kuszak ◽  
...  

The increased utilization of metrology resources and expanded application of its’ approaches in the development of internationally agreed upon measurements can lay the basis for regulatory harmonization, support reproducible research, and advance scientific understanding, especially of dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Yet, metrology is often underappreciated and underutilized in dealing with the many challenges presented by these chemically complex preparations. This article discusses the utility of applying rigorous analytical techniques and adopting metrological principles more widely in studying dietary supplement products and ingredients, particularly medicinal plants and other botanicals. An assessment of current and emerging dietary supplement characterization methods is provided, including targeted and non-targeted techniques, as well as data analysis and evaluation approaches, with a focus on chemometrics, toxicity, dosage form performance, and data management. Quality assessment, statistical methods, and optimized methods for data management are also discussed. Case studies provide examples of applying metrological principles in thorough analytical characterization of supplement composition to clarify their health effects. A new frontier for metrology in dietary supplement science is described, including opportunities to improve methods for analysis and data management, development of relevant standards and good practices, and communication of these developments to researchers and analysts, as well as to regulatory and policy decision makers in the public and private sectors. The promotion of closer interactions between analytical, clinical, and pharmaceutical scientists who are involved in research and product development with metrologists who develop standards and methodological guidelines is critical to advance research on dietary supplement characterization and health effects.


Author(s):  
Adeleye Ayoade Adeniran ◽  
Winston Shakantu

Twenty-first century human behaviour continues to escalate activities that result in environmental damage. This calls for environmentally friendly solutions, such as waste recycling and handling, to deal with the increased amount of waste, especially plastics. The plastic materials manufacturing sector is booming, particularly packaging; while only a fraction of its waste is recycled, another fraction is destroyed, and the larger part continues to pollute the environment. In addition to other waste disposal activities, destroying plastic or incineration (which could be for energy recovery) is usually subjected to strict legal requirements because of its effect on the environment. However plastic is destroyed or disposed of, it poses a serious challenge in both the short term and the long term to humans and their natural environment if the process is not efficiently managed. This article describes how a growing amount of plastic waste is disposed of haphazardly in South African townships, while most of the inhabitants are not aware or do not care about the adverse environmental and health effects of these actions. This article examines the environmental and health effects of poor plastic disposal in South African townships as it is in other developing countries to sensitise the citizens to the significance of reducing plastic waste quantities, which will downplay their impact on human health and the environment.


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