cell communication
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Huan Zhang ◽  
Juan Xing ◽  
Zhujiang Dai ◽  
Daorong Wang ◽  
Dong Tang

AbstractPancreatic cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Unfortunately, the lack of effective methods of treatment and diagnosis has led to poor prognosis coupled with a very high mortality rate. So far, the pathogenesis and progression mechanisms of pancreatic cancer have been poorly characterized. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by most cells, contain lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and are involved in diverse functions such as intercellular communications, biological processes, and cell signaling. In pancreatic cancer, exosomes are enriched with multiple signaling molecules that mediate intercellular communication with control of immune suppression, mutual promotion between pancreas stellate cells and pancreatic cancer cells, and reprogramming of normal cells. In addition, exosomes can regulate the pancreatic cancer microenvironment and promote the growth and survival of pancreatic cancer. Exosomes can also build pre-metastatic micro-ecological niches and facilitate the targeting of pancreatic cancer. The ability of exosomes to load cargo and target allows them to be of great clinical value as a biomarker mediator for targeted drugs in pancreatic cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 930
Author(s):  
Ba Da Yun ◽  
Ye Ji Choi ◽  
Seung Wan Son ◽  
Gabriel Adelman Cipolla ◽  
Fernanda Costa Brandão Berti ◽  
...  

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are differentially expressed in gastrointestinal cancers. These noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) regulate a variety of cellular activities by physically interacting with microRNAs and proteins and altering their activity. It has also been suggested that exosomes encapsulate circRNAs and lncRNAs in cancer cells. Exosomes are then discharged into the extracellular environment, where they are taken up by other cells. As a result, exosomal ncRNA cargo is critical for cell–cell communication within the cancer microenvironment. Exosomal ncRNAs can regulate a range of events, such as angiogenesis, metastasis, immune evasion, drug resistance, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. To set the groundwork for developing novel therapeutic strategies against gastrointestinal malignancies, a thorough understanding of circRNAs and lncRNAs is required. In this review, we discuss the function and intrinsic features of oncogenic circRNAs and lncRNAs that are enriched within exosomes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 946
Author(s):  
Christina J. Codden ◽  
Michael T. Chin

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Single-nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) of both obstructive and nonobstructive HCM patient samples has revealed alterations in communication between various cell types, but no direct and integrated comparison between the two HCM phenotypes has been reported. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of HCM snRNA-seq datasets from obstructive and nonobstructive patient samples to identify differentially expressed genes and distinctive patterns of intercellular communication. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 37 differentially expressed genes, predominantly in cardiomyocytes but also in other cell types, relevant to aging, muscle contraction, cell motility, and the extracellular matrix. Intercellular communication was generally reduced in HCM, affecting the extracellular matrix, growth factor binding, integrin binding, PDGF binding, and SMAD binding, but with increases in adenylate cyclase binding, calcium channel inhibitor activity, and serine-threonine kinase activity in nonobstructive HCM. Increases in neuron to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, in fibroblast to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, and in endothelial cell communication to other cell types, largely through changes in the expression of integrin-β1 and its cognate ligands, were also noted. These findings indicate both common and distinct physiological mechanisms affecting the pathogenesis of obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and provide opportunities for the personalized management of different HCM phenotypes.


Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 145
Author(s):  
Cristina Almeida ◽  
Ana Luísa Teixeira ◽  
Francisca Dias ◽  
Vera Machado ◽  
Mariana Morais ◽  
...  

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world and represents the third most deadly tumor worldwide. About 15–25% of patients present metastasis in the moment of diagnosis, the liver being the most common site of metastization. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic agents is needed, to improve the patients’ prognosis. Amino acids transporters, LAT1 and ASCT2, are described as upregulated in CRC, being associated with a poor prognosis. Extracellular vesicles have emerged as key players in cell-to-cell communication due to their ability to transfer biomolecules between cells, with a phenotypic impact on the recipient cells. Thus, this study analyzes the presence of LAT1 and ASCT2 mRNAs in CRC-EVs and evaluates their role in phenotype modulation in a panel of four recipient cell lines (HCA-7, HEPG-2, SK-HEP-1, HKC-8). We found that HCT 116-EVs carry LAT1, ASCT2 and other oncogenic mRNAs being taken up by recipient cells. Moreover, the HCT 116-EVs’ internalization was associated with the increase of LAT1 mRNA in SK-HEP-1 cells. We also observed that HCT 116-EVs induce a higher cell migration capacity and proliferation of SK-HEP-1 and HKC-8 cells. The present study supports the LAT1-EVs’ mRNA involvement in cell phenotype modulation, conferring advantages in cell migration and proliferation.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xigang Liu ◽  
Ke Zhang ◽  
Hao Zhang ◽  
Yanyun Pan ◽  
Lin Guo ◽  
...  

In cell-cell communication, non-cell-autonomous transcription factors play vital roles in controlling plant stem cell fate. We previously reported that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 3 (ARF3), a member of the ARF family with critical roles in floral meristem maintenance and determinacy, has a distinct accumulation pattern that differs from the expression domain of its encoding gene in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). However, the biological meaning of this difference is obscure. Here, we demonstrate that ARF3 expression is mainly activated at the periphery of the SAM by auxin, where ARF3 cell-autonomously regulates the expression of meristem-organ boundary-specific genes, such as CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON1-3 (CUC1-3), BLADE ON PETIOLE1-2 (BOP1-2) and TARGETS UNDER ETTIN CONTROL3 (TEC3) to determine organ patterning. We also show that ARF3 is translocated into the organizing center, where it represses cytokinin activity and WUSCHEL expression to regulate meristem activity non-cell-autonomously. Therefore, ARF3 acts as a molecular link that mediates the interaction of auxin and cytokinin signaling in the SAM while coordinating the balance between meristem maintenance and organogenesis. Our findings reveal an ARF3-mediated coordination mechanism through cell-cell communication in dynamic SAM maintenance.


2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (6) ◽  
pp. 135-148
Author(s):  
Rachmat Hidayat ◽  
Joko Marwoto ◽  
Lusia Hayati

All body functions depend on cell integrity. Therefore, understanding cell biology is intrinsically important for understanding disease. A vast amount of information reveals how the cell behaves like an organism with many social cells. At the heart of cell biology is cell communication—how messages originate and are transmitted, received, interpreted, and used by cells. This efficient communication between, and within the cell maintains the function of the cell and its specialization. Intercellular signals enable each cell to determine its position and specific role. Cells must demonstrate a "chemical preference" for other cells and the environment that surrounds them to maintain the integrity of the whole organism. When they no longer tolerate this preference, the conversation ends and the cell adapts (sometimes changes in function) or becomes vulnerable to isolation, injury, illness, or even death. This review explains the function of each component in the cell and its role in life.


Author(s):  
Kayla A. Simanek ◽  
Isabelle R. Taylor ◽  
Erica K. Richael ◽  
Erica Lasek-Nesselquist ◽  
Bonnie L. Bassler ◽  
...  

Bacteria use a cell-cell communication process called quorum sensing (QS) to orchestrate collective behaviors. QS relies on the group-wide detection of molecules called autoinducers (AI).


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Emil D. Jensen ◽  
Marcus Deichmann ◽  
Xin Ma ◽  
Rikke U. Vilandt ◽  
Giovanni Schiesaro ◽  
...  

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) enable cells to sense environmental cues and are indispensable for coordinating vital processes including quorum sensing, proliferation, and sexual reproduction. GPCRs comprise the largest class of cell surface receptors in eukaryotes, and for more than three decades the pheromone-induced mating pathway in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has served as a model for studying heterologous GPCRs (hGPCRs). Here we report transcriptome profiles following mating pathway activation in native and hGPCR-signaling yeast, and use a model-guided approach to correlate gene expression to morphological changes. From this we demonstrate mating between haploid cells armed with hGPCRs and endogenous biosynthesis of their cognate ligands. Furthermore, we devise a ligand-free screening strategy for hGPCR compatibility with the yeast mating pathway and enable hGPCR-signaling in the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii. Combined, our findings enable new means to study mating, hGPCR-signaling, and cell-cell communication in a model eukaryote and yeast probiotics.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ling Liu ◽  
Matthew T Buckley ◽  
Jaime M Reyes ◽  
Soochi Kim ◽  
Lei Tian ◽  
...  

Exercise has the ability to rejuvenate stem cells and improve tissue homeostasis and regeneration in aging animals. However, the cellular and molecular changes elicited by exercise have not been systematically studied across a broad range of cell types in stem cell compartments. To gain better insight into the mechanisms by which exercise affects niche and stem cell function, we subjected young and old mice to aerobic exercise and generated a single cell transcriptomic atlas of muscle, neural and hematopoietic stem cells with their niche cells and progeny. Complementarily, we also performed whole transcriptome analysis of single myofibers from these animals. We identified common and unique pathways that are compromised across these tissues and cell types in aged animals. We found that exercise has a rejuvenating effect on subsets of stem cells, and a profound impact in the composition and transcriptomic landscape of both circulating and tissue resident immune cells. Exercise ameliorated the upregulation of a number of inflammatory pathways as well as restored aspects of cell-cell communication within these stem cell compartments. Our study provides a comprehensive view of the coordinated responses of multiple aged stem cells and niche cells to exercise at the transcriptomic level.


2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marina Giannakara ◽  
Vassiliki Lila Koumandou

Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication system that enables bacteria to coordinate their gene expression depending on their population density, via the detection of small molecules called autoinducers. In this way bacteria can act collectively to initiate processes like bioluminescence, virulence and biofilm formation. Autoinducers are detected by receptors, some of which are part of two-component signal transduction systems (TCS), which comprise of a (usually membrane-bound) sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a cognate response regulator (RR). Different QS systems are used by different bacterial taxa, and their relative evolutionary relationships have not been extensively studied. To address this, we used the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database to identify all the QS HKs and RRs that are part of TCSs and examined their conservation across microbial taxa. We compared the combinations of the highly conserved domains in the different families of receptors and response regulators using the Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool (SMART) and KEGG databases, and we also carried out phylogenetic analyses for each family, and all families together. The distribution of the different QS systems across taxa, indicates flexibility in HK–RR pairing and highlights the need for further study of the most abundant systems. For both the QS receptors and the response regulators, our results indicate close evolutionary relationships between certain families, highlighting a common evolutionary history which can inform future applications, such as the design of novel inhibitors for pathogenic QS systems.


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