hydrogen gas
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 100254
Susumu Nakayama ◽  
Shigeki Kuwata ◽  
Shinji Imai

2022 ◽  
Huifang Xu ◽  
Kuang-Sheng Hong ◽  
Meiye Wu ◽  
Seungyeol Lee

ABSTRACT A high concentration of hydrogen gas occurs in fracture zones of active faults that are associated with historical earthquakes. To explain the described phenomenon, we propose the piezoelectrochemical (PZEC) effect as a mechanism for the direct conversion of mechanical energy to chemical energy. When applied to natural piezoelectric crystals including quartz and serpentine, hydrogen and oxygen are generated via direct water decomposition. Laboratory experiments show H2 gas is generated from strained piezoelectric material due to the extremely low solubility of H2, suggesting that the deformed or strained mineral surfaces can catalyze water decomposition. If the strain-induced H2 production is significant, hydrogen measurements at monitoring sites can offer information on deformation of rocks operating at depth prior to earthquakes. Oxygen can be measured in water due to its high solubility compared to hydrogen. Our experimental results demonstrate that dissolved oxygen generated from the PZEC effect can oxidize dissolved organic dye and ferrous iron in an aqueous Fe(II)–silicate metal complex. The hydrogen and oxygen formed through stoichiometric decomposition of water in the presence of strained or deformed minerals in fault zones (including subduction zones and transform faults) may be referred to as tectonic hydrogen and tectonic oxygen. Tectonic hydrogen could be a potential energy source for deep subsurface and glacier-bedrock interface microbial communities that rely on molecular hydrogen for metabolism. Tectonic oxygen may have been an important oxidizing agent when dissolved in water during times in early Earth history when atmospheric oxygen levels were extremely low. Reported “whiffs” of dissolved oxygen before the Great Oxidation Event might have been related to tectonic activity.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 421
Salome Hagelstein ◽  
Sergej Zankovic ◽  
Adalbert Kovacs ◽  
Roland Barkhoff ◽  
Michael Seidenstuecker

Zinc alloys have recently been researched intensely for their great properties as bioabsorbable implants for osteosynthesis. Pure zinc (Zn) itself has relatively poor strength, which makes it insufficient for most clinical use. Research has already proven that the mechanical strength of zinc can be enhanced significantly by alloying it with silver. This study evaluated zinc silver alloys (ZnAg) as well as novel zinc silver titanium alloys (ZnAgTi) regarding their mechanical properties for the use as bioabsorbable implants. Compared to pure zinc the mechanical strength was enhanced significantly for all tested zinc alloys. The elastic properties were only enhanced significantly for the zinc silver alloys ZnAg6 and ZnAg9. Regarding target values for orthopedic implants proposed in literature, the best mechanical properties were measured for the ZnAg3Ti1 alloy with an ultimate tensile strength of 262 MPa and an elongation at fracture of 16%. Besides the mechanical properties, the corrosion rates are important for bioabsorbable implants. This study tested the corrosion rates of zinc alloys in PBS solution (phosphate buffered solution) with electrochemical corrosion measurement. Zinc and its alloys showed favorable corrosion rates, especially in comparison to magnesium, which has a much lower degradation rate and no buildup of hydrogen gas pockets during the process. Altogether, this makes zinc alloys highly favorable for use as material for bioabsorbable implants for osteosynthesis.

2022 ◽  
Seong Ryoung Kim ◽  
Keon Mo Lee ◽  
Jin Hong Kim ◽  
Young Jin Choi ◽  
Han Ick Park ◽  

Abstract Background: Magnesium alloys have been receiving much attention for use in biodegradable metal implants because of their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, their rapid breakdown and low bioactivity can cause the implant to lose mechanical integrity before the bone is completely healed. Moreover, hydrogen gas released during degradation can significantly delay the tissue regeneration process. To solve the instability of magnesium alloys, Zn and Ca can be added to improve the mechanical properties and biocompatibility. One other way to improve the mechanical properties of Mg is plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), which provides a dense, thick ceramic-like coating on the Mg surface. In this study, high-purity Mg was selected as the control, and Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy and PEO-treated Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy were selected as the test materials; the results of radiographic and histological analyses of their biocompatibility are reported herein. Materials and method: Nineteen New Zealand white rabbits were used in the study. Rod-bars (Ø2.7x13.6mm) were placed on both paravertebral muscles, and cannulated screws (Ø2.7x10mm) were placed on both femur condyle notches. Each animal was implanted in all four sites. X-rays were taken at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, micro-CT, and live-CT were taken at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. At weeks 4, 8, and 12, individuals representing each group were selected and sacrificed to prepare specimens for histopathological examination. Result: The results confirm that in vivo, Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy had higher corrosion resistance than high-purity Mg and safely degraded over time without causing possible side effects (foreign body or inflammatory reactions, etc.). In addition, PEO treatment of Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy had a positive effect on fracture recovery by increasing the bonding area with bone. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PEO treatment of Mg-1wt%Zn-0.1wt%Ca alloy can be a promising biomaterials in the field of various clinical situations such as orthopedic and maxillofacial surgerys.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 ◽  
Xintao Wang ◽  
Bonan Tong ◽  
Rongji Hui ◽  
Congcong Hou ◽  
Zilu Zhang ◽  

Methamphetamine (METH) abuse causes irreversible damage to the central nervous system and leads to psychiatric symptoms including depression. Notably, METH-induced hyperthermia is a crucial factor in the development of these symptoms, as it aggravates METH-induced neurotoxicity. However, the role of hyperthermia in METH-induced depression-like behaviors needs to be clarified. In the present study, we treated mice with different doses of METH under normal (NAT) or high ambient temperatures (HAT). We found that HAT promoted hyperthermia after METH treatment and played a key role in METH-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. Intriguingly, chronic METH exposure (10 mg/kg, 7 or 14 days) or administration of an escalating-dose (2 ∼ 15 mg/kg, 3 days) of METH under NAT failed to induce depression-like behaviors. However, HAT aggravated METH-induced damage of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, reaction to oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. Molecular hydrogen acts as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and has been shown to have preventive and therapeutic applicability in a wide range of diseases. Coral calcium hydride (CCH) is a newly identified hydrogen-rich powder which produces hydrogen gas gradually when exposed to water. Herein, we found that CCH pretreatment significantly attenuated METH-induced hyperthermia, and administration of CCH after METH exposure also inhibited METH-induced depression-like behaviors and reduced the hippocampal synaptic plasticity damage. Moreover, CCH effectively reduced the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and decreased malondialdehyde, TNF-α and IL-6 generation in hippocampus. These results suggest that CCH is an efficient hydrogen-rich agent, which has a potential therapeutic applicability in the treatment of METH abusers.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 334
Rostislav Velichko ◽  
Yusaku Magari ◽  
Mamoru Furuta

Low-temperature activation of oxide semiconductor materials such as In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) is a key approach for their utilization in flexible devices. We previously reported that the activation temperature can be reduced to 150 °C by hydrogen-doped IGZO (IGZO:H), demonstrating a strong potential of this approach. In this paper, we investigated the mechanism for reducing the activation temperature of the IGZO:H films. In situ Hall measurements revealed that oxygen diffusion from annealing ambient into the conventional Ar/O2-sputtered IGZO film was observed at >240 °C. Moreover, the temperature at which the oxygen diffusion starts into the film significantly decreased to 100 °C for the IGZO:H film deposited at hydrogen gas flow ratio (R[H2]) of 8%. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the near Fermi level (EF) defects in the IGZO:H film after the 150 °C annealing decreased in comparison to that in the conventional IGZO film after 300 °C annealing. The oxygen diffusion into the film during annealing plays an important role for reducing oxygen vacancies and subgap states especially for near EF. X-ray reflectometry analysis revealed that the film density of the IGZO:H decreased with an increase in R[H2] which would be the possible cause for facilitating the O diffusion at low temperature.

2022 ◽  
Vol 292 ◽  
pp. 110631
Mei Yan ◽  
Yandong Yao ◽  
Kaiping Mou ◽  
Yuanyuan Dan ◽  
Weitai Li ◽  

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document