jammu and kashmir
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
R. Z. Ashraf ◽  
B. Ahmad ◽  
F. Shafique ◽  
M. U. Hassan ◽  
N. Asim ◽  

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.

Water Policy ◽  
2022 ◽  
S. H. Baba ◽  
Oyas Asimi ◽  
Ishrat F. Bhat ◽  
Irfan A. Khan

Abstract This study comprehensively investigated the livelihood security scenario of fisher households (FHs) employing the CARE framework with little modifications, in Kashmir, India. Primary data for this study was collected from selected FHs, and a regression function was fitted to quantify the determinants of livelihood security. The findings revealed that fishing has been their dominant livelihood option. The landholding owned by the households was meagre enough to carry out farming or domesticate animals on commercial lines. Poor capital endowments place them at less livelihood security level; however, the respondents with diversified income have a relatively higher index value for livelihood. The regression estimates indicated that barring social and natural capital, all forms of capital have a significant role to play in securing their livelihood. Poor livelihood security, coupled with less income flow, has made their survival vulnerable to various distresses and health disorders, including the prevalence of Infant & Maternal Mortality. Their dietary intake was undesirably less than their dietary recommendations. The COVID-19 pandemic was perceived as a shock to their livelihood security. Further, public investment, which is pertinent for the growth of the fisheries sector, has shown a discouraging trend. The study concluded with a few policy suggestions for securing the livelihood of the fisher community.

Robina Mirza ◽  
Ankita Sharma ◽  
Pooja Sharma

Background: Early pregnancy failure (EPF) is a common experience for women. Medical management allows for expulsion of the nonviable pregnancy in a controlled manner without any surgical risk. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of mifepristone followed by misoprostol with misoprostol alone in management of EPF.Methods: This was a prospective comparative interventional randomised clinical study conducted at Shri Maharaja Gulab Singh hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir India from November 2019 to October 2020. A total of 200 patients with gestational age less than 13 weeks and ultrasound diagnosis of EPF were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups, group A (100 patients) received tab. mifepristone 200 mg orally 24 hrs before the use of Tab misoprostol 800 ug per vaginally. If no expulsion occurs within 4 hours, repeat doses of 400 ug misoprostol were given per vaginally at 4-hourly interval to a maximum of 2 doses in women less than or equal to 9 weeks by ultrasound and 4 doses in women more than 9 weeks by ultrasound. Group B (100 patients) received only Tab misoprostol in similar doses without prior mifepristone. The study was performed after approval from the institutional ethical committee. The data was analysed using computer software Microsoft Excel, Statistical and IBM SPSS version 21.0. The statistical difference in mean value between two groups was tested using unpaired ‘t’ test. The qualitative data was compared using Fischer’s exact test.Results: The success rate was higher in group A 92% than group B where it was 76%. The mean induction-abortion interval and dose of misoprostol required for expulsion were 6.56±.66 hrs in group A and 10.40±4.33 hrs in group B and 1126.88±536.06 ug in group A and 1583.33±364.58 ug in group B. The patients in group A experienced significantly less side effects than those in group B, 19% versus 32% and also required fewer blood transfusions than group B, 2% versus 5%.Conclusions: In the present study we came to the conclusion that mifepristone followed by misoprostol is more effective, safe and acceptable than misoprostol alone.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Ali Aahil Noorali ◽  
Maha Inam ◽  
Hamna Shahbaz ◽  
Hareem Rauf ◽  
Faiqa Binte Aamir ◽  

Introduction: Equipping young medical trainees with fundamental research skills can be a promising strategy to address the need for professionals who can understand and responsibly communicate evolving scientific evidence during a pandemic. Despite an ardent interest to partake in research, most educational institutions in Pakistan and other low-middle income countries have not yet adopted a comprehensive strategy for research skills education. The authors aimed to design and assess the feasibility of implementing the first nation-wide virtual research workshop for medical students in Pakistan.Methods: The course “Beginners Guide to Research,” designed as a nation-wide virtual research workshop series, was conducted for medical students across Pakistan in June 2020. Four interactive live workshops took place online on alternate days from June 22nd, 2020, to June 27th, 2020, each lasting 1–2 h. Outcomes included: (i) reach, (ii) efficacy as indexed by pre-post change in score pertaining to knowledge and application of research and (iii) self-rated perceptions about understanding of research on a Likert scale.Results: 3,862 participants enrolled from 41 cities and 123 institutions. Enrolled participants belonged to the following provinces: Sindh (n = 1,852, 48.0%), Punjab (n = 1,767, 45.8%), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (n = 109, 2.8%), Azad Jammu and Kashmir (n = 84, 2.2%) Balochistan (n = 42, 1.1%). We also saw a few registrations from international students (n = 8, 0.2%). Mean (SD) age of enrolled medical students was 21.1 (2.1) years, 2,453 (63.5%) participants were female and 2,394 (62.0%) were from private-sector medical colleges. Two thousand ninety-three participants participants filled out all four pre-test and post-test forms. The total median knowledge score improved from 39.7 to 60.3% with the highest improvements in concepts of research bioethics and literature search (p < 0.001) with greater change for females compared to males (+20.6 vs. +16.2%, p < 0.001) and private institutions compared to public ones (+16.2 vs. +22.1%, p < 0.001).Conclusion: The overwhelming enrollment and significant improvement in learning outcomes (>50% of baseline) indicate feasibility of a medical student-led research course during a pandemic, highlighting its role in catering to the research needs in the LMICs.

2022 ◽  
Unashish Mondal ◽  
Subrat Kumar Panda ◽  
Someshwar Das ◽  
Devesh Sharma

Abstract Lightning is an electrical discharge - a'spark' or 'flash' as charged regions in the atmosphere instantly balance themselves through this discharge. It is a beautiful and deadly naturally occurring phenomenon. In June 2020, more than a hundred people died in the state Bihar of India only in three days’ span due to lightning events. In this work, Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) information from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite with a very high spatial resolution of 0.1 X 0.1 degree has been utilized to create the climatology of India for 16 years from 1998 to 2013. Diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variations in the occurrence of lightning flash rate density have also been analyzed. TRMM satellite low-resolution monthly time series (LRMTS) with 2.5-degree resolution datasets have been used for lightning trend analysis. The diurnal lightning event mainly occurs in the afternoon/evening (1400-1900 Hrs) time duration around 0.001 flashes/km2/hr. The highest lightning occurred in May (0.04 flashes/km2/day) and the least in December (0.005 flashes/km2/day). The distribution of lightning flash counts by season over India landmass is mainly in pre-monsoon (MAM) ranges from 0.248 – 0.491 flashes/km2/day, and monsoon (JJA) ranges from 0.284 – 0.451 flashes/km2/day and decreases afterward. Spatially, the distribution of lightning flashes mainly at North-Eastern region along with Bangladesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, and Jammu & Kashmir region. The CAPE and K Index have positively correlated with the flash rate density seasonally but CAPE is more significantly correlated. This study also focused on finding of lightning hotspots region of India district wise and Rajouri district in Jammu and Kashmir got the highest lightning with 121 flashes/km2/yr.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 468
Muhammad Riaz Khan ◽  
Muhammad Azam Khan ◽  
Umer Habib ◽  
Mehdi Maqbool ◽  
Rashid Mehmood Rana ◽  

Wild Himalayan figs (Ficus palmata Forsk.), native to East Asia and the Himalayan region, are closely related to the well-known cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.), which is grown mainly in the Mediterranean region. The Pakistani state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir has a rich variety of figs. However, no comprehensive study has been carried out to utilise the diversity of these wild figs for possible use in sustainable fruit production. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the variability of 35 wild fig accessions using quantitative and qualitative traits. Descriptive statistics were used to measure quantitative characteristics, while the coefficient of variance (CV %) was analysed using SAS® version 9.1. A principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate analysis were performed using R Studio (v1.1.4). Pearson correlation coefficients between characteristics were obtained using SPSS software. The studied accessions showed high variability and the coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 4.46–14.81%. Days to maturity varied from 71 to 86, leaf area from 38.55 to 90.06 cm2. The fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit weight ranged from 11.25 to 29.85 mm, 11.85 to 27.49 mm and 2.65 to 9.66 g, respectively. The photosynthetic activity and total chlorophyll content also varied from 7.94 to 10.22 μmol CO2 m−2s−1 and 37.11 to 46.48 μgml−1. In most of the fig accessions studied, apical dominance was found to be ‘absent’ while fruit shape was observed to be ‘globular’. A strong correlation was observed between all the studied characteristics. In the PCA analysis, all 35 fig accessions were distributed in four quadrants and showed a great diversity. This could be a valuable gene pool for future breeding studies and provide improved quality varieties. Wild Himalayan figs from the wild are well adapted to local pedoclimatic conditions and, combined with easy propagation and production can contribute to the local economy and have a significant impact on the socio-economic and ecological balance. The results of this study show high variability in some of the studied traits of 35 accessions from different parts of Northeast Pakistan, indicating their good potential for further enhancement and utilisation in sustainable agricultural production.

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