Gene Expression Analysis
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2021 ◽  
Sabine Willems ◽  
Whitney Kilu ◽  
Giuseppe Faudone ◽  
Jan Heering ◽  
Daniel Merk

The ligand-sensing transcription factor Nurr1 emerges as a promising therapeutic target for neurodegenerative pathologies but Nurr1 ligands for functional studies and therapeutic validation are lacking. Here we report pronounced Nurr1 modulation by statins for which clinically relevant neuroprotective effects have been demonstrated. Several statins directly affected Nurr1 activity in cellular and cell-free settings with low micromolar to sub-micromolar potencies. Simvastatin exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in astrocytes which were abrogated by Nurr1 knockdown. Differential gene expression analysis in native and Nurr1 silenced cells revealed strong proinflammatory effects of Nurr1 knockdown while simvastatin treatment induced several neuroprotective mechanisms via Nurr1, for example, in energy utilization and reduced apoptosis. These findings suggest Nurr1 involvement in the well-documented but mechanistically elusive neuroprotection by statins.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257416
Alireza Saraji ◽  
Anne Offermann ◽  
Janine Stegmann-Frehse ◽  
Katharina Hempel ◽  
Duan Kang ◽  

With the advance of precision medicine, the availability of tumor tissue for molecular analysis has become a limiting factor. This is particularly the case for bone metastases which are frequently occurring in cancer types such as prostate cancer. Due to the necessary decalcification process it was long thought that transcriptome analysis will not be feasible from decalcified formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (DFFPE) in a large manner. Here we demonstrate that mRNA extraction from DFFPE is feasible, quick, robust and reproducible and that decalcification does not hamper subsequent gene expression analysis. This might assist in implementing transcriptome analysis from DFFPE into every day practice.

BioTechniques ◽  
2021 ◽  
Jyotsnamayee Sabat ◽  
Subhra Subhadra ◽  
Sonalika Rath ◽  
Lal Mohan Ho ◽  
Srikanta Kanungo ◽  

Purity and integrity are two important criteria for any RNA extraction process to qualify the RNA for meaningful gene expression analysis. This study compares four commercially available RNA extraction kits using silica membrane and magnetic bead separation methods. The performance was evaluated in terms of both quantity (total RNA amount in μg/μl) and purity (260/280 ratio). The concentration and purity of each kit was significantly different from those of the others (p < 0.001). Although quantity obtained from Mag MAX is comparatively lower than QIAGEN, the quality is comparable as evident from real-time PCR performance. This study suggests that there are practical differences between these RNA extraction kits that should be taken into account while isolating RNA required for gene expression analysis.

2021 ◽  
Abhishek Bohra ◽  
Gandam Prasad ◽  
Abhishek Rathore ◽  
Rachit K Saxena ◽  
Satheesh Naik SJ ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (18) ◽  
pp. 9684
Jiao Sun ◽  
Naima Ahmed Fahmi ◽  
Heba Nassereddeen ◽  
Sze Cheng ◽  
Irene Martinez ◽  

Microbes and viruses are known to alter host transcriptomes by means of infection. In light of recent challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, a deeper understanding of the disease at the transcriptome level is needed. However, research about transcriptome reprogramming by post-transcriptional regulation is very limited. In this study, computational methods developed by our lab were applied to RNA-seq data to detect transcript variants (i.e., alternative splicing (AS) and alternative polyadenylation (APA) events). The RNA-seq data were obtained from a publicly available source, and they consist of mock-treated and SARS-CoV-2 infected (COVID-19) lung alveolar (A549) cells. Data analysis results show that more AS events are found in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells than in mock-treated cells, whereas fewer APA events are detected in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. A combination of conventional differential gene expression analysis and transcript variants analysis revealed that most of the genes with transcript variants are not differentially expressed. This indicates that no strong correlation exists between differential gene expression and the AS/APA events in the mock-treated or SARS-CoV-2 infected samples. These genes with transcript variants can be applied as another layer of molecular signatures for COVID-19 studies. In addition, the transcript variants are enriched in important biological pathways that were not detected in the studies that only focused on differential gene expression analysis. Therefore, the pathways may lead to new molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.

Inmaculada Gómez ◽  
M. Carmen Thomas ◽  
Génesis Palacios ◽  
Adriana Egui ◽  
Bartolomé Carrilero ◽  

Infection by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite causes Chagas disease and triggers multiple immune mechanisms in the host to combat the pathogen. Chagas disease has a variable clinical presentation and progression, producing in the chronic phase a fragile balance between the host immune response and parasite replication that keeps patients in a clinically silent asymptomatic stage for years. Since the parasite is intracellular and replicates within cells, the cell-mediated response of the host adaptive immunity plays a critical role. This function is mainly orchestrated by T lymphocytes, which recognize parasite antigens and promote specific functions to control the infection. However, little is known about the immunological markers associated with this asymptomatic stage of the disease. In this large-scale analysis, the differential expression of 106 immune system-related genes has been analyzed using high-throughput qPCR in T. cruzi antigen-stimulated PBMC from chronic Chagas disease patients with indeterminate form (IND) and healthy donors (HD) from endemic and non-endemic areas of Chagas disease. This analysis revealed that there were no differences in the expression level of most genes under study between healthy donors from endemic and non-endemic areas determined by PCA and differential gene expression analysis. Instead, PCA revealed the existence of different expression profiles between IND patients and HD (p &lt; 0.0001), dependent on the 32 genes included in PC1. Differential gene expression analysis also revealed 23 upregulated genes (expression fold change &gt; 2) and 11 downregulated genes (expression fold change &lt; 0.5) in IND patients versus HD. Enrichment analysis showed that several upregulated genes in IND patients participate in relevant immunological pathways such as antigen-dependent B cell activation, stress induction of HSP regulation, NO2-dependent IL12 pathway in NK cells, and cytokine-inflammatory response. The antigen-specific differential gene expression profile detected in these patients and the relevant immunological pathways that seem to be activated could represent potential biomarkers of the asymptomatic form of Chagas disease, helpful to diagnosis and infection control.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Min Zhao ◽  
Shaoting Wang ◽  
Anna Zuo ◽  
Jiaxing Zhang ◽  
Weiheng Wen ◽  

Abstract Background Endothelial cell (EC) injury accelerates the progression of diabetic macrovascular complications. Hypoxia is an important cause of EC injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is an important hypoxia regulatory protein. Our previous studies showed that high-glucose and hypoxic conditions could upregulate HIF-1α expression and enhance EC inflammatory injury, independently of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway. However, it is not clear whether HIF-1α plays a role in vascular disease through epigenetic-related mechanisms. Methods We conducted gene expression analysis and molecular mechanistic studies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by hyperglycemia and hypoxia using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and small interfering HIF-1α (si-HIF-1α). We determined HIF-1α and Jumonji domain-containing protein 1 A (JMJD1A) expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, analyzed inflammatory protein secretion in the cell supernatant by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and assessed protein interaction between HIF-1α and JMJD1A by chromatin immunoprecipitation (Ch-IP). We used the Cell Counting Kit8 (CCK-8) assay to analyze cell viability, and assessed oxidative stress indicators by using a detection kit and flow cytometry. Results High glucose and hypoxia up-regulated HIF-1α expression, and down-regulated HIF-1α decreased the level of inflammation and oxidative stress in HUVECs. To determine the downstream pathways, we observed histone demethylases genes and related pathway by RNA-sEq. Among these, JMJD1A was the most upregulated gene in histone demethylases. Moreover, we observed that HIF-1α bound to the promoter of JMJD1A, and the ameliorative effects of si-HIF-1α on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in high-glucose and hypoxia-induced HUVECs were reversed by JMJD1A overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of JMJD1A decreased inflammatory and oxidative stress injury. To determine the JMJD1A-related factors, we conducted gene expression analysis on JMJD1A-knockdown HUVECs. We observed that downregulation of inflammation and the oxidative stress pathway were enriched and FOS and FOSB might be important protective transcription factors. Conclusions These findings provide novel evidence that the HIF-1α/JMJD1A signaling pathway is involved in inflammation and oxidative stress in HUVECs induced by high glucose and hypoxia. Also, this pathway might act as a novel regulator of oxidative stress and inflammatory-related events in response to diabetic vascular injury and thus contribute to the pathological progression of diabetes and vascular disease.

Ahmed S. Abdelhafiz ◽  
Merhan A. Fouda ◽  
Nahla A. Elzefzafy ◽  
Iman I. Taha ◽  
Omar M. Mohemmed ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. ii19-ii19
A D Maier ◽  
A Meddis ◽  
J Haslund-Vinding ◽  
C Mirian ◽  
A Areskeviciute ◽  

Abstract BACKGROUND Malignant meningiomas comprise 2–5% of all meningiomas. The process of malignant transformation when benign meningiomas (WHO grade I-II) become malignant (WHO grade III) has not previously been investigated in sequential tumour surgeries. Upregulation of FOXM1 expression and DREAM-complex repression have shown phenotypical subgroups correlating with WHO grade and aggressiveness. We investigated the RNA expression of 30 genes central to meningioma biology and 770 genes involved in neuroinflammatory pathways in primary and secondary malignant meningioma patients who underwent one to several operations. MATERIALS AND METHODS We identified a cohort of consecutive malignant meningioma patients treated at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen from 2000–2020 (n=51) and gathered their malignant tumours and previous WHO grade I/II tumours. The malignant cohort (MC) was counter matched with a benign cohort (BC) where patients had no recurrences during follow-up. RNA expression signatures from 140 samples from the MC and 51 samples from the BC were analysed with the Nanostring Neuroinflammation panel customized with 30 genes known to be relevant in meningioma phenotypes. RESULTS 49% of MC patients had a previous grade I/II meningioma making them secondary malignant meningioma patients. Progression-free survival calculated from first malignant surgery to first recurrence or death showed no significant difference in the primary vs. secondary patients. Preliminary results of single-gene analysis of MC tumours showed FOXM1, MYBL2, TOP2A, BIRC5 expression was higher in WHO grade III samples. Gene-expression signatures in the individual patients and gene ontology enrichment analyses are in process. CONCLUSIONS FOXM1, MYBL2, TOP2A, BIRC5 RNA expression levels seem to rise during malignant progression across patients. Gene-expression analysis using the Nanostring technology is feasible and a potentially powerful tool to distinguish meningiomas prone to malignant transformation from truly benign meningiomas.

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