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Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 81
Bryant H. Keirns ◽  
Christina M. Sciarrillo ◽  
Samantha M. Hart ◽  
Sam R. Emerson

Post-meal triglycerides are an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, but the ideal high-fat meal formulation has yet to be standardized and is one challenge prohibiting widespread clinical adoption of postprandial triglyceride assessment. Two general approaches often used are giving individuals a high-fat meal scaled to body weight or a standardized high-fat meal containing a set fat bolus. A recent expert panel statement has endorsed the latter, specifying 75 g of fat as an appropriate fat dosage. Despite this recommendation, no study to date has tested whether there is a difference in postprandial triglycerides or if risk classification is affected based on these different approaches. We recruited 16 generally healthy individuals with roughly equal distribution among body mass index (BMI)class (n = 5–6/per BMI category) and sex (n = 2–3 M/F) within each BMI class. Each participant underwent two abbreviated fat tolerance tests separated by ~1 week: one with a scaled to body weight high-fat meal (9 kcal/kg; 70% fat) and a standardized meal containing 75 g of fat (70% fat). Fasting, 4 h, and absolute change in triglycerides across the entire sample and within each BMI category were similar regardless of high-fat meal. Only one participant with obesity had discordant postprandial responses between the fat tolerance tests (i.e., different CVD risk classification). These findings suggest that, within a certain range of fat intake, generally healthy individuals will have a similar postprandial triglyceride response. Considering the greater convenience of utilizing standardized high-fat meals, our data suggest that a standardized high-fat meal may be acceptable for large-scale studies and clinical implementation.

2022 ◽  
Mitjan Morr ◽  
Xiqin Liu ◽  
Rene Hurlemann ◽  
Benjamin Becker ◽  
Dirk Scheele

Loneliness has been associated with detrimental effects on mental and physical health and is increasingly recognized as a critical public health issue which may be further exacerbated by societal challenges such as increasing urbanization, an aging society as well as the COVID-19 pandemic. We here review recent findings on the neurocognitive mechanisms and brain alterations that underpin social disconnectedness, therapeutic approaches for chronic loneliness and how these lines of research can be integrated to improve the efficacy of loneliness interventions in healthy individuals and patients with mental disorders.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lan Chai ◽  
Qi Wang ◽  
Caijuan Si ◽  
Wenyan Gao ◽  
Lun Zhang

Objective:Lung microbiota is increasingly implicated in multiple types of respiratory diseases. However, no study has drawn a consistent conclusion regarding the relationship between changes in the microbial community and lung diseases. This study verifies the association between microbiota level and lung diseases by performing a meta-analysis.Methods:Literature databases, including PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholar, PMC, and CNKI, were used to collect related articles published before March 20, 2021. The standard mean deviation (SMD) and related 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses were also conducted.Results:Six studies, comprising 695 patients with lung diseases and 176 healthy individuals, were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the microbiota level was higher in patients with lung diseases than in healthy individuals (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.22–0.55, I2 = 91.5%, P < 0.01). Subgroup analysis based on country demonstrated that the microbiota level was significantly higher in Chinese (SMD = 1.90, 95% CI = 0.87–2.93, I2 = 62.3%, P < 0.01) and Korean (SMD = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.13–0.35, I2 = 78.7%, P < 0.01) patients with lung diseases. The microbiota level of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (SMD = 1.40, 95% CI = 0.42–2.38, I2 = 97.3%, P = 0.005), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (SMD = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.09–0.50, I2 = 83.9%, P = 0.004), and asthma (SMD = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06–0.32, I2 = 69.4%, P = 0.004) were significantly higher than those of the healthy group, whereas a lower microbiota level was found in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). The microbiota level significantly increased when the disease sample size was >50. Subgroup analysis based on different microbiota genera, indicated that Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were significantly increased in COPD and asthma diseases.Conclusion:We observed that patients with IPF, COPD, and asthma had a higher microbiota level, whereas patients with CHP had a lower microbiota level compared to the healthy individuals. The level of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were significantly higher in patients with COPD and asthma, and thus represented as potential microbiota markers in the diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 350-359
Piotr Łacina ◽  
Aleksandra Butrym ◽  
Diana Frontkiewicz ◽  
Grzegorz Mazur ◽  
Katarzyna Bogunia-Kubik

CD147 (basigin, BSG) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein involved in energy metabolism that plays a role in cancer cell survival. Its soluble form is a promising marker of some diseases, but it is otherwise poorly studied. CD147 is overexpressed in multiple myeloma (MM) and is known to affect MM progression, while its genetic variants are associated with MM survival. In the present study, we aimed to assess serum soluble CD147 (sCD147) expression as a potential marker in MM. We found that sCD147 level was higher in MM patients compared to healthy individuals. It was also higher in patients with more advanced disease (ISS III) compared to both patients with less advanced MM and healthy individuals, while its level was observed to drop after positive response to treatment. Patients with high sCD147 were characterized by worse overall survival. sCD147 level did not directly correlate with bone marrow CD147 mRNA expression. In conclusion, this study suggests that serum sCD147 may be a prognostic marker in MM.

2022 ◽  
Quanhong Ou ◽  
Xien Yang ◽  
Weiye Yang ◽  
Liqin Jiang ◽  
Kai Qian ◽  

Abstract Background: Raman and fluorescence spectra techniques are potential tools for disease diagnosis. In recent years, the application of Raman and fluorescence spectra techniques in biological studies has increased a great deal, and clinical investigations relevant to cancer detection by spectroscopic means have attracted particularly attention from both clinical and non-clinical researchers. Methods: In this article, Raman and fluorescence spectra were employed for the detection of liver cancer and healthy individuals using their serum samples. These serum samples were compared with their spectral features acquired by Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy to initially establish spectral features that can be considered spectral markers of liver cancer diagnosis. Resuits: The intensity differences from characteristic peaks of carotene, protein and lipid associated Raman spectra were clearly observed in liver cancer patient serum samples versus normal human serum. The changes in the serum fluorescence profiles of liver cancer patients were also analyzed. To probe the capacity and contrast of Raman spectroscopy as an analytical implement for the early diagnosis of liver cancer, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the Raman spectra of controls , liver cancer patients and healthy individuals. Furthermore, the Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of Raman spectroscopy for the classification of disease samples and healthy samples.Conclusion: Compare with the existing diagnostic techniques, the Raman spectroscopy technique has an excellent advantage in extremely low sample requirements, ease of use and ideal screening procedures. Thus, Raman spectroscopy has great potential to be developed as a powerful tool for distinguishing between healthy and liver cancer serum samples.

2022 ◽  
Vol 99 (12) ◽  
pp. 38-43
A. B. Аveryanov ◽  
I. I. Cherkashina ◽  
S. Yu. Nikulina ◽  
E. Yu. Kuznetsova ◽  
V. N. Maksimov

The objective of the study: to study rs2227983 polymorphism of EGFR gene in patients with allergic asthma and healthy individuals.Subjects and Methods. 179 patients suffering from allergic asthma were included in the study. The diagnosis and degree of severity were established in accordance with the GINA recommendations. The Control Group included apparently healthy individuals (n = 217). Patients with allergic asthma underwent standard laboratory and instrumental examinations and DNA typing.Results. A statistically significant predominance of AG genotype frequency in the group of patients with allergic asthma, including women, versus the group of healthy individuals, was established. AG rs2227983 genotype of EGFR gene was found to be significantly more common in patients with mild and moderate allergic asthma including women, than in healthy individuals, including women.Conclusion. The association of rs2227983 polymorphism of EGFR gene with allergic asthma has been established. A homozygous GG genotype may play a protective role against the disease.

Corinna Serviente ◽  
Stephen T Decker ◽  
Gwenael Layec

The long-term sequelae of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are multifaceted and, besides the lungs, impact other organs and tissues, even in cases of mild infection. Along with commonly reported symptoms such as fatigue and dyspnea, a significant proportion of those with prior COVID-19 infection also exhibit signs of cardiac damage, muscle weakness, and ultimately, poor exercise tolerance. This review provides an overview of evidence indicating cardiac impairments and persistent endothelial dysfunction in the peripheral vasculature of those previously infected with COVID-19, irrespective of the severity of the acute phase of illness. Additionally, VO2peak appears to be lower in convalescent patients, which may stem, in part, from alterations in O2 transport such as impaired diffusional O2conductance. Together, the persistent multi-organ dysfunction induced by COVID-19 may set previously healthy individuals on a trajectory towards frailty and disease. Given the large proportion of individuals recovering from COVID-19, it is critically important to better understand the physical sequelae of COVID-19, the underlying biological mechanisms contributing to these outcomes, and the long-term effects on future disease risk. This review highlights relevant literature on the pathophysiology post-COVID-19 infection, gaps in the literature, and emphasizes the need for the development of evidence-based rehabilitation guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Wojciech Blogowski ◽  
Katarzyna Dolegowska ◽  
Anna Deskur ◽  
Barbara Dolegowska ◽  
Teresa Starzynska

Eicosanoids are bioactive lipids derived from arachidonic acid, which have emerged as key regulators of a wide variety of pathophysiological processes in recent times and are implicated as mediators of gastrointestinal cancer. In this study, we investigated the systemic levels of lipoxygenase (LOX)-derived lipoxin A4 and B4, together with resolvin D1 and D2 in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 68), as well as in healthy individuals (n = 32). Systemic concentrations of the aforementioned immunoresolvents were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we observed that compared with concentrations in healthy individuals, the peripheral concentrations of the aforementioned eicosanoids were significantly elevated (2- to 10-fold) in patients with pancreatic cancer (in all cases p<0.00001). No significant association was observed between eicosanoid levels and the TNM clinical staging. Furthermore, we observed no significant differences in concentrations of the analyzed bioactive lipids between patients diagnosed with early-stage (TNM stage I-II) and more advanced disease (TNM stage III-IV). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of each aforementioned immunoresolvent showed area under the curve values ranging between 0.79 and 1.00. Sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values of the eicosanoids involved in the detection/differentiation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma ranged between 56.8% and 100%. In summary, our research is the first study that provides clinical evidence to support a systemic imbalance in LOX-derived lipoxins and resolvins as the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This phenomenon occurs regardless of the clinical TNM stage of the disease. Furthermore, our study is the first to preliminarily highlight the role of peripheral levels of immunoresolvents, particularly resolvin D1, as potential novel biomarkers of pancreatic cancer in humans.

Ananda Jacqueline Ferreira ◽  
Larissa Tavares Aguiar ◽  
Júlia Caetano Martins ◽  
Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais Faria

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