temperature variations
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Jéssica L. O. Brasileiro ◽  
Rossana M. F. de Figueirêdo ◽  
Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz ◽  
Regilane M. Feitosa

ABSTRACT Fruit pulps undergo temperature variations during processing, leading to viscosity changes. This study aimed to analyse the rheological behaviour of macaíba pulp at different temperatures (10 to 50 ºC, with 5 ºC increments) and speeds (2.5 to 200 rpm, totalling 17 speeds). Experimental measurements were performed in a Brookfield viscometer, fitting the Ostwald-de-Waele, Mizrahi-Berk, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson models to the experimental data of shear stress as a function of shear rate. Among the models used, the Mizrahi-Berk model (R² > 0.9656 and average percentage deviation - P ≤ 4.1%) was found to best fit the rheogram data. Macaíba pulp exhibited a non-newtonian behaviour and was characterised as pseudoplastic. It showed fluid behaviour indexes below unity under the studied conditions, with decreases in apparent viscosity as temperature and shear rate increased. Such behaviour could be described by the Arrhenius equation. The Mizrahi-Berk and Falguera-Ibarz models (R² > 0.99 and P ≤ 10%) best fitted the data and were used to represent the viscosity behaviour of macaíba pulp. The activation energy values of macaíba pulp ranged between 17.53 and 25.37 kJ mol-1, showing a rheological behaviour like other fruit pulps.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (3) ◽  
pp. 289-308

In the context of the ever increasing interest in the regional aspects of global warming, understanding the spatio-temporal variations of tropospheric temperature over India is of great importance. The present study, based on the data from 19 well distributed radiosonde stations for the period 1971-2000, examines the seasonal and annual mean temperature variations at the surface and five selected upper levels, viz., 850, 700, 500, 200 and 150 hPa. An attempt has also been made to bring out the association between tropospheric temperature variations over India and the summer monsoon variability, including the role of its major teleconnection parameter, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO).   Seasonal and annual mean all-India temperature series are analyzed for surface and five tropospheric levels.  The mean annual cycles of temperature at different tropospheric levels indicate that the pre-monsoon season is slightly warmer than the monsoon season at the surface, 850 hPa and 150 hPa levels, while it is relatively cooler at all intermediate levels.  The mean annual temperature shows a warming of 0.18° C and 0.3° C per 10 years at the surface and 850 hPa, respectively.   Tropospheric temperature anomaly composites of excess (deficient) monsoon rainfall years show pronounced positive (negative) anomalies during the month of May, at all the levels.  The pre-monsoon pressure of Darwin has significant positive correlation with the monsoon temperature at the surface and 850 hPa.

2022 ◽  
Dharmender Nishad ◽  
Kaushal Nigam ◽  
Satyendra Kumar

Abstract Temperature dependence performance variation is one of the major concerns in predicting the actual electrical characteristics of the device as the bandgap of semiconducting material varies with temperature. Therefore, in this article, for the first time, the impact of temperature variations ranging from 300K to 450K on the DC, analog/ radio frequency, and linearity performance of dual material stack gate oxide-source dielectric pocket-tunnel- field-effect transistor (DMSGO-SDP-TFET) is investigated. In this regard, technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulator is used to analyze DC, and analog/radio frequency performance parameters such as carrier concentration, energy band variation, band to band tunneling rate, IDS - VGS characteristics, transconductance (gm), cut o frequency (f T ),gain-bandwidth product (GBP), maximum oscillating frequency (fmax), transconductance frequency product (TFP), and transit time considering the impact of temperature variations. Furthermore, linearity parameters such as third-order transconductance (gm3), third-order voltage intercept point (VIP3), third-order input-interception point (IIP3), and intermodulation distortion (IMD3) are also analyzed with temperature variations as these performance parameters are significant for linear and analog/radio frequency applications. Moreover, the performance of the proposed DMSGO- SDP-TFET is compared with the conventional dual-material stack gate oxide-tunnel- field-effect transistor (DMSGO-TFET). From the comparative analysis, in terms of % per kelvin, DMSGO-SDP-TFET demonstrates lesser sensitivity towards temperature variation. Hence, the proposed DMSGO-SDP-TFET can be a suitable candidate for low power switching and analog/radio frequency applications at elevated temperatures as compared to conventional DMSGO-TFET.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jean de Bremond d’Ars ◽  
Dominique Gibert

Volcanoes with highly-developed and shallow hydrothermal systems may be subject to sudden increases of their surface steam emission at vents in response to either deep forcing (e.g. increase of heat flux coming from the magma chamber) or external forcing (e.g. sudden decrease of atmospheric pressure or variation of meteoric water input). Because the vent plumbing has a limited heat and mass transfer capacity, the rise of steam pressure accompanying the increase of flux may destabilize the system in order to augment its net transfer capacity. This reorganization may, for instance, take the form of an enlargement of existing conduits and vents or to the creation of new ones. In such a case, local and extremely dangerous blast phenomena are likely to occur with devastating consequences several hundreds of meters around. Even volcanoes with a moderate activity and considered safe by the local population are exposed to such abrupt and dangerous events. The detection of early warning signals through temperature monitoring in the vents is of a primary importance and a main difficulty is to correctly interpret temperature jumps in order to reduce false alarms. We analyze time series of the temperature measured in three fumaroles located at the top of La Soufrière volcano in Guadeloupe, which are characterized by their relatively low temperature around 99°C, slightly above the boiling temperature of water at this altitude. Thanks to the long duration of the records from January to August 2017 and to their short 1-s sampling interval, a multiscale analysis can be performed over several orders of magnitude. We show that, despite their complex and sometimes erratic appearance, the temperature variations observed in the vents contain components highly correlated with rain input variations. Some remarkable patterns recurrently appear at different periods and we show that the main temperature variations of more than 10°C are related to the rainfall intensity. Our results illustrate the importance of external forcing on the otherwise complex and possibly chaotic dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system of La Soufrière. They also reveal that a careful analysis of rainfall forcing must be done to be able to draw any conclusion concerning changes caused by the underlying hydrothermal system.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Judith Peters

Temperature variations are often used to investigate molecular dynamics through neutron scattering in biosystems, as the required techniques are well-known. Hydrostatic pressure is much less applied due to technological difficulties. However, within the last decade, a reliable and suitable equipment has been developed at the Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France, which is now available on different instruments. Here, an overview on its application in relation with elastic incoherent neutron scattering to study, for instance, the impact of transitions on atomic mobility in biological samples, is presented, as well as the conclusions that can be drawn therefrom.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Orfeas Panetas-Felouris ◽  
Spyridon Vlassis

This paper presents a novel circuit of a z−1 operation which is suitable, as a basic building block, for time-domain topologies and signal processing. The proposed circuit employs a time register circuit which is based on the capacitor discharging method. The large variation of the capacitor discharging slope over technology process and chip temperature variations which affect the z−1 accuracy is improved using a novel digital calibration loop. The circuit is designed using a 28 nm Samsung FD-SOI process under 1 V supply voltage with 5 MHz sampling frequency. Simulation results validate the theoretical analysis presenting a variation of capacitor voltage discharging slope less than 5% over worst-case process corners for temperature between 0 °C and 100 °C while consuming only 30 μA. Also, the worst-case accuracy of z−1 operation is better than 33 ps for input pulse widths between 5 ns and 45 ns presenting huge improvement compared with the uncalibrated operator.

2022 ◽  
Vol 177 (1) ◽  
Miguel Cisneros ◽  
Whitney M. Behr ◽  
John P. Platt ◽  
Robert Anczkiewicz

AbstractDetermining pressure and temperature variations between high-pressure/low-temperature (HP–LT) eclogite blocks is crucial for constraining end-member exhumation models; however, it has historically been challenging to constrain eclogite pressures due to the high variance associated with this bulk-rock composition. In this work, we utilize quartz-in-garnet elastic barometry to constrain formation pressures of eclogites from the northern (Junction School, Ring Mountain, Jenner Beach) and southern Franciscan Complex (Santa Catalina Island). Multiple eclogite blocks from Jenner Beach are analyzed, and a single eclogite from the other localities. By comparing garnet growth conditions from within a single outcrop and between distinct outcrops, we evaluate the local and regional spatial distribution of P conditions recorded by eclogites. We compare the mean, median, and max pressures between different garnet zones and eclogites. Pressures sometimes exhibit systematic changes across garnet zones; however, some eclogites exhibit no systematic pressure variations across garnet zones. Pressures from northern Franciscan eclogites range from $$\sim $$ ∼ 1.4–1.8 GPa, at an estimated temperature of 500 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C; pressures from the Catalina eclogite range from $$\sim $$ ∼ 1.2–1.5 GPa, at an estimated temperature of 650 $$^{\circ }$$ ∘ C. Mean and maximum pressures of different eclogites from the northern Franciscan exhibit negligible differences (< 0.1 GPa). The results are inconsistent with models that propose exhumation of metamorphic blocks from different structural levels, and suggest that now exposed HP–LT eclogites from the northern Franciscan Complex may represent rocks that were coherently underplated, and exhumed from similar structural levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 1
Andrés Vilaboa Díaz ◽  
Pastora M. Bello Bugallo

Buildings are one of the systems that more energy consumed in the European Union. The study of the thermal envelope is interesting in order to reduce the energy losses. For that, a mathematical model able to predict the system response to external temperature variations is developed. With the mathematical model, different thermal envelope elements of a building based on the lag and the cushioning of the resultant wave can be characterized. In addition, it is important to analyse where the insulation is placed, because when the insulation is outside and the thermal mass is inside, the system produces a response with smooth temperature variations than when the insulation is inside. Therefore, placing the outside insulation generates more steady indoor temperatures, increasing the thermal comfort inside the building. To complete the mathematical model that allows predicting the temperature inside a building taking into account the solar inputs and the thermal inertia of the building. This study will help to establish the optimum design parameters in order to build sustainable and comfortable buildings. Furthermore, it will take one step forward in the construction of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings.

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