Biological Samples
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Michael Bekhit ◽  
Teresa Blazek ◽  
Waldemar Gorski

2021 ◽  
Ava Saghafi ◽  
Razieh Sanavi Khoshnood ◽  
Davoud Sanavi Khoshnoud ◽  
Zarrin Eshaghi

Susanna Salminen-Paatero ◽  
Jussi Paatero

Transfer of natural radionuclides 210Pb, 210Po, 238U, and 228,230,232Th in subarctic food chains has been studied in Finland since the 1960s. The unique food chain lichen-reindeer-man related to Sami people in Finnish Lapland and other food chain options, from berries or mushrooms to man, have been explored and the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in biological samples determined. The results from Finnish radioecological studies are summarized and differences in bioaccumulation between different radionuclides are discussed. It was found out that, although a substantial amount of activity concentration data exist from the research projects executed in Finland during the last 6 decades, more data, especially from U and Th, in biological environment and humans would be useful, e.g., for modeling purposes and for improved assessment of bioaccumulation and adverse effects (both radiological and chemical) of radionuclides.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
N. H. M. Zainal ◽  
R. Abas ◽  
S. F. Mohamad Asri

Allergic disease has risen to epidemic proportions since the last decade and is among the most common noncommunicable, chronic diseases in children and adolescents worldwide. Allergic disease usually occurs in early life; thus, early biomarkers of allergic susceptibility are required for preventive measures to high-risk infants which enable early interventions to decrease allergic severity. However, to date, there is no reliable general or specific allergy phenotype detection method that is easy and noninvasive for children. Most reported allergic phenotype detection methods are invasive, such as the skin prick test (SPT), oral food challenge (OFC), and blood test, and many involve not readily accessible biological samples, such as cord blood (CB), maternal blood, or newborn vernix. Saliva is a biological sample that has great potential as a biomarker measurement as it consists of an abundance of biomarkers, such as genetic material and proteins. It is easily accessible, noninvasive, collected via a painless procedure, and an easy bedside screening for real-time measurement of the ongoing human physiological system. All these advantages emphasise saliva as a very promising diagnostic candidate for the detection and monitoring of disease biomarkers, especially in children. Furthermore, protein biomarkers have the advantages as modifiable influencing factors rather than genetic and epigenetic factors that are mostly nonmodifiable factors for allergic disease susceptibility in childhood. Saliva has great potential to replace serum as a biological fluid biomarker in diagnosing clinical allergy. However, to date, saliva is not considered as an established medically acceptable biomarker. This review considers whether the saliva could be suitable biological samples for early detection of allergic risk. Such tools may be used as justification for targeted interventions in early childhood for disease prevention and assisting in reducing morbidity and mortality caused by childhood allergy.

2021 ◽  
Marco Favaro ◽  
Paola Zampini ◽  
Enrico S. Pistoia ◽  
Roberta Gaziano ◽  
Sandro Grelli ◽  

Abstract Since its appearance in late 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to acquire substitutions more slowly than other RNA viruses, but its tendency to manifest recurrent deletions/mutations in the spike glycoprotein exceeds this slow replacement rate. To date, variants have been identified in many countries, some of which are transmitted efficiently and also present several lineages. The rapid identification of such variants is paramount to quickly implement containment measures. We developed a novel assay using traditional real-time PCR to detect the main reported variants of the spike gene of SARS CoV-2. Primers and probes were designed to detect the following deletions and mutations as well as to cover all lineages known to date (B.1.617, B.1.617.1, B.1.617.2, B.1.617.3 and B.1.618): delta 69:70 and delta 144:145 deletions, which denote the UK variant (VOC 202012/01, now called Alpha); delta 242:244 deletion, which identifies the South African variant (now named Beta); delta 3675:3677 deletion in the ORF1a gene, which denotes the Brazilian variant (now called Gamma); and P681R mutation as well as delta 145:146 and delta 157:158 deletions, which identify the Indian variant (also known as Delta). Our assay will help clinical microbiologists and clinicians to rapidly recognize the presence of variants in biological samples (particularly nasopharyngeal swabs), and it may also be useful for epidemiological purposes in the early selection for successive tracing of patients harbouring virus variants that may be more diffusive and/or not responsive to vaccines.

2021 ◽  
pp. 131405
Feng Xu ◽  
Yuanyuan Pang ◽  
Qixing Nie ◽  
Zhipeng Zhang ◽  
Chuan Ye ◽  

Yupeng Chen ◽  
Haiwen Xie ◽  
Muhammad Junaid ◽  
Nan Xu ◽  
Youchang Zhu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (19) ◽  
pp. 8981
Colin J. R. Sheppard

Optical methods of super-resolution microscopy, such as confocal microscopy, structured illumination, nonlinear microscopy, and image scanning microscopy are reviewed. These methods avoid strong invasive interaction with a sample, allowing the observation of delicate biological samples. The meaning of resolution and the basic principles and different approaches to superresolution are discussed.

Viktoriia V. Rohalska ◽  
Oksana M. Bronevytska ◽  
Halyna D. Boreiko ◽  
Iryna S. Shapovalova ◽  
Iryna R. Serkevych

The analysis of investigative and judicial practice shows that some lawyers regard the refusal of a person to provide voluntarily biological samples for examination as an execution of his/her right not to testify against him/herself. Analysis of the provisions of separate Judgements of the European Court on Human Rights allows us to conclude that the physical integrity of a person is covered by the concept of “private life” protected by Article 8 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and concerns the most intimate aspects of private life, and compulsory medical intervention, even insignificant, constitutes an interference with this right. Therefore, the criminalprocedural characteristic of obtaining of biological samples for expertise is given in the article. The authors analyzed and answered the questions: which particular samples should be attributed to biological ones, and whether it is possible to refuse to voluntarily granting of biological samples for examination in accordance to the realization of the right not to testify against him/herself. The possibility of obtaining of biological samples for examination from a person who is not a party to criminal proceedings or has not acquired procedural status has been considered. The article as well deals with the legality of obtaining of samples for examination before submitting information into the Unified Register of Pre-trial Investigations. The algorithm of actions of obtaining of biological samples for examination, including the compulsory order, is proposed. The following general scientific research methods were used: the dialectical method of legal phenomena, with the help of which the concept and the legal nature of biological samples for examination were studied; the comparative method – in the process of comparing the norms of the Criminal Procedural Code of Ukraine (CPC) with the norms of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) and decisions of the ECHR, etc.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Thanh M. Nguyen ◽  
Samuel Bharti ◽  
Zongliang Yue ◽  
Christopher D. Willey ◽  
Jake Y. Chen

Unsupervised learning techniques, such as clustering and embedding, have been increasingly popular to cluster biomedical samples from high-dimensional biomedical data. Extracting clinical data or sample meta-data shared in common among biomedical samples of a given biological condition remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Statistical Enrichment Analysis of Samples (SEAS) for interpreting clustered or embedded sample data from omics studies. The method derives its power by focusing on sample sets, i.e., groups of biological samples that were constructed for various purposes, e.g., manual curation of samples sharing specific characteristics or automated clusters generated by embedding sample omic profiles from multi-dimensional omics space. The samples in the sample set share common clinical measurements, which we refer to as “clinotypes,” such as age group, gender, treatment status, or survival days. We demonstrate how SEAS yields insights into biological data sets using glioblastoma (GBM) samples. Notably, when analyzing the combined The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)—patient-derived xenograft (PDX) data, SEAS allows approximating the different clinical outcomes of radiotherapy-treated PDX samples, which has not been solved by other tools. The result shows that SEAS may support the clinical decision. The SEAS tool is publicly available as a freely available software package at

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